Stage four cancer means that primary tumor has already reached large dimensions, has grown into adjacent organs and, most likely, has metastasized. So even surgical removal of the cancer will not lead to a complete cure. In addition, the patient begins to experience constant pain, suffering from chronic intoxication (as a result of disintegration of tumor tissue), anemia, etc. the Treatment can only be palliative.
Palliative care aims to relieve the suffering of the patient, eliminating the painful symptoms, a organization proper care, psychological support of the patient and his family members.
Depending on the type and location of the tumor, the application of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. If you allow the condition of the patient and type of cancer, may be offered surgical treatment with partial removal of the cancer. The purpose of therapy is to reduce the primary tumor size and suspend the rate of cell division of cancer cells. If the treatment is effective, the patient becomes easier, and his life is prolonged for several months or even years.
Palliative care includes symptomatic treatment, that is, the relief of painful symptoms. To alleviate pain prescribe narcotic analgesics. If you have difficulty breathing, the patient shows oxygen inhalation. Fighting toxicity with intravenous fluids.
Surgical care may also be symptomatic. For example, if cancer of the bowel and intestinal obstruction, the patient form a stoma (sutured healthy part of the intestine to the skin of the abdomen), so that the patient could urinate. For throat cancer the patient made an incision in the trachea and insert a breathing tube, so that man could breathe.
Ensuring the proper care of cancer patients is an integral part of medical care. Preference is given to hospices. Throughout the civilized world decided to hospitalize severe incurable patients in specific health organizations, which provide qualified assistance and competent care. Patients prevention of pressure ulcers in a timely manner introduced drugs and painkillers, if necessary, prescribe tube feeding. It eases the suffering of the patient and his family members.
Psychological support is essential for a dying patient. Psychologists, therapy and individual or family psychotherapy, aimed at reconciliation of the patient and his family with the fact of death. Often prescribed tranquilizers (drugs that reduce fear and anxiety) and antidepressants.
Advice 2: How to treat stomach cancer
Stomach cancer is a malignant tumor originating from its mucosa. This is one of the most common cancers, according to statistics, gastric cancer ranks second among all malignancies.
Stomach cancer can develop in any Department in the upper, and lower body, where the stomach connects to the intestines. Men are sick 2 times more often than women, risk increases after 50 years. Also risk factors are heredity, chronic diseases (gastritis with low acidity, peptic ulcer, polyps), gastric surgery (risk increases 2.5 times).
Great importance to have a food addiction - the risk is more among fans of smoked meat, too spicy, overcooked food and canned products with a long shelf life. At risk for lovers of spirits, especially vodka, as well as smokers.
In 1994 there was a proven link between the presence of Helicobacter pilori and cancer of the stomach, it is also a carcinogen. The occurrence of disease great importance to have conditions such as vitamin B12 and ascorbic acid, decrease in immunity, pernicious (malignant) anemia. Often, stomach cancer develops in people who work with Nickel and asbestos
In the initial stage of cancer of the stomach there is a small tumor (2 cm) on the mucosa. Gradually it increases in size, prorostaet all layers of the stomach, passing to the colon and pancreas. For this localization cancer is characterized by early appearance of metastases in large quantity. Cancer cells are carried along with the flow of blood and lymph, most often affects the liver, lymph nodes, lungs, peritoneum and ovaries.
In the early stages of the tumor, there is virtually asymptomatic, can sometimes be loss of appetite and fatigue. In a later stage there is aversion to meat and fish, a feeling of fullness of stomach, diarrhea and constipation, weight loss. With the further growth of the tumor join epigastric pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, vomiting blood, abdomen increases in size due to fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites) develops severe anemia.
Used for diagnostic gastroduodenoscopy, x-ray of the stomach, computed tomography, ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, is a common and biochemical blood analysis. The result of treatment of stomach cancer depends on the stage at which it is begun, on the tumor size, the extent of its prevalence and the presence of metastases. As a rule, in the early stages a tumor is detected extremely rarely and often by accident, mostly diagnosed only at late stages when symptoms and prevalence.
Currently, the main method of treatment of gastric cancer surgical. Depending on the stage there is partial removal of the stomach (resection) or complete removal. If necessary, carry out the removal of the affected organs (partially or completely) - the spleen, pancreas, ovaries, intestines, etc. as auxiliary treatment using chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In some countries, the treatment of viruses, but this method has not yet found wide application.