Advice 1: How to read a three-phase electric meter

Many apartments and private houses are three-phase counters that keep a record of electricity consumption. For unchecked indicators calculation for payment for electricity used in each month. This counter is established for accounting and control of legal consumption. To remove the testimony from the may employee of the utility or the consumer.
How to read a three-phase electric meter
You will need
  • - instruction to the counter;
  • calculator;
  • - a sheet of paper;
  • - pen or pencil.
Instruction
1
Take instructions and determine what you kind of the counter. There are presently many varieties of three-phase meters. Basically use only two types – electronic and induction. Compared to the e-induction has more advantages. The reason is that in the mid 90-ies they were installed in every home and in their lifetime has not expired.
2
Examine carefully the counter. Counters of different numerical indicators. They are three-digit and four-digit. In the first case the maximum rate is equal to 1000 kWh and in the second 10000 kilowatt/hour. Upon reaching 999 or 9999 kWh indicators fully reset, and counting of consumption starts from zero. Consider these features before remove the performance.
3
Determine the amount of electricity consumed. To do this, take the figure for the previous month and subtract it from the current. This way you will get the amount of electricity consumption for the current period since the last payment. Write it on a sheet of paper.
4
Put the result in monetary unit, i.e. the amount that you should pay. To do this, multiply the difference will be levied on the existing price.
5
But sometimes such a situation when the testimony is necessary to remove when replacing counters. Most often it is replacement of a three-digit to four-digit. In this case, summarize the old testimony and the new, the result multiply by the rate and in the end get the amount of payment per month.
Note
With self-removal indicators keep the receipts for the payment, otherwise you will not be able to take an accurate reading of watts used in a month. Not for the full payment of the used electric power, power company can produce electricity until full repayment of the debt.
Useful advice
It is best for removing indicators call in a specialist from the organ supply. It has all your previous records, and so you will be instantly presented with a bill for payment.

Advice 2: How to read the meter

Today I put the water meters in most apartments – they allow you to track the weight passing through your water pipe, and also save money on paying for hot and cold water. Also, the meter allows for timely water leakage – if there is a leak, you will notice that the arrows or red triangles do not rotate. In this article we will tell you how to remove the indicators from the counter to properly track the waste of water in your apartment.
How to read the meter
Instruction
1
The counters are divided into two types – a drum with a digital sensor and with the usual dial. Remove the performance counter from the drum sensor is very simple – improve the numbers of reels of long slits every month and compare the new number with the previous to keep track of water consumption in each month.
2
Subtract from the new number of the previous and get the desired result – the amount of water spent during the reporting period.
3
On the analog gauge has multiple dials. Observe the large arrow, which gives tenths of a cubic metre (100 litres equal to one-tenth).
4
On the small dial counting cubic meters (1000 liters). Other dials indicate the tens, thousands and tens of thousands of cubic meters of water. Consider those numbers across the arrow in the desired direction from 0 to 9 and count the total number of gallons of water wasted in your home.
5
To trace a leak in the pipeline, tighten all faucets and check for leaks in the water in the bathroom and toilet. Then look at the counters. All indicators should be in place – if some of the indicators are moving, that means in some place the water is leaking.
6
Your task is to find and eliminate the leak in the pipes that these leaks did not increase the amount of money that you pay for the water.
7
The measured pass subscription service for data conversion into appropriate amount of hot and cold water in the usual way, or through the Internet.
Note
At the end of accounting period (months) the owner needs to take readings of the water meter and report data on the consumption of resources to a specialized organization on the phone, via the Internet, with the help of some paper, etc. Besides the fact that this action gives much trouble to the landlord, with the increase in the number of installed water meters increased load on manual processing of information computing centres.
Useful advice
How to transfer readings of the water meter in Moscow via the Internet. To use the service, you must log in your personal account on the Moscow state services portal – create new account takes less than 2 minutes to choose service Reception counters hot and If the code is correct and the apartment is equipped with individual metering of water consumed, the user will be taken to a page to enter readings. Transmit the data during the reporting period, it is necessary to 3 the following month.

Advice 3: How to connect three-phase meter

Let's first understand, what is an electricmeter? This is a device that takes into account the consumption of electricity. The counters are: single-rate, dual-rate, three-tariff; single-phase, three-phase. Three-phase electric meter is a device for metering power in 3 and 4 wire networks three-phase alternating current with frequency of 50 Hz.Such three-phase meterand is installed to ensure consumers can connect more electrical appliances, the power of which not only 220 volts, but 380.
How to connect three-phase meter
Instruction
1
To install three-phase meter it is necessary to write the application to the organization delivering you with electricity. Connect the meter definitely needs a professional electrician. It is not only the requirement of the organizations that supply electricity, and the rate of security. Unprofessional connection counterand can be costly for the landlord, and to the mountain master.
2
Set Elektrothe counter where the wiring runs. All electrical wires that fit in the apartment connect to the input terminals of the electrometer, and output terminals - this is the separator electrical circuit, the electrical wiring of the subscriber.
3
Install the meter only in easily accessible locations for service on panels, boards, special cabinets, that is, on a rigid Foundation. According to the rules, the panel with the meterohms is installed at a height of not less than 130 cm and above 170 cm
4
Plomberie device. Makes this procedure the employee organisations that supply you energy. As soon as you seal the counter, you can do the wiring in the apartment.
5
If you had to install the meterwhere there is a risk of contamination or the space available for unauthorized persons, then the counter is better to install in a special Cabinet. This Cabinet has a window at the level of the dial and locks.
6
The presence of twists and rations in the wiring to the counter isnot allowed. The smaller section wires to the meteram 2.5 mm2 aluminum conductors up to 4 mm2. About counters at the wiring it is necessary to leave the ends of the wires at least 120 mm Before the meterOhm insulation on the length of the neutral wire of 100 mm should be different color. In the premises of the voltage in networks of up to 380 volts, you need to detach the counterand a special switching apparatus to a distance of 10 meters from the counter.
7
When installing the meter, ensure reliable, sturdy contact attached wires. Clanmovie the screws tighten 2 admission. If you use copper flexible wire, then do the pre-tinning solder. Use tin-lead solder, it will provide a more reliable connection. It is recommended that after six months of operation of the counterand cause the representative of the organization of electricity supply and check the terminal number contacts.
Useful advice
If you want to ensure that you have correctly connected the meter whether it was true his testimony, turn off all your appliances and see how the meter disk. If it does not rotate, the installation went well. It is possible to calculate whether the counter counts the consumption of electricity. Take the appliance which you know the power. Turn it on for 5 minutes and see how much energy he will spend. Compare the costs of passport data and counter. If the results differ, contact the organization that provides the energy.
The meter connection is a must, but we must make sure that the account most of the benefits.

Advice 4: How to remove readings from a three-phase meter

Three phase electric meters are designed for accounting of electricity consumed in industrial three-phase network at a voltage V. 3Х380 their Main function – control and monitoring of legal consumption.
How to remove readings from a three-phase meter
Instruction
1
Determine the type of the counter. Modern industry produces a variety of models of three-phase meters with which you can measure the power consumption at the same time in several directions, and even multiple rates. Basically there are two types of counters – induction and electronic. Despite the use of more advanced technology in electronic counterx, their share compared to induction is relatively small. This is because they were commonly established until the mid 90-ies and their period of validity has not yet expired.
2
In practice, the indications of the meter may be removed as the representative of the supplier of electricity and owner of the counter. Inspect the counter. If it lists the three-digit indicator of electricity, then this means that a full rotation of the counter mechanism corresponds to 1000 kWh. For the four-digit counter , this figure will be equal to 10000 kW/h. Upon reaching values of, respectively, 999 and 9999 kWh readings will reset and starts a new report. When you take the readings with such meters, be sure to consider their characteristics.
3
In determining the amount of electricity consumed, you should use the difference in readingsx for the previous period and the last readings. In other words, the value of the testimony subtract the value recorded in the previous times, so you will get the value of the consumption for a certain period.
4
To translate the result into money, the difference in kilowatt-hours multiply by the current tariff. A situation may arise when you need to take readings with the meter replacement, for example, with a three-digit to four-digit. In such a situation, calculate the last readings of the old meter, and then sum them, after some time with the readingswe've a new counter.

Advice 5: How to remove the readings on the meter

With the constant growth of tariffs for heating, more and more people are starting to think about saving. If your intentions are serious enough, then it is time to think about the installation of heat meters. Its presence is a reliable guarantee that you will not pay extra money for heat, which for different reasons to you did not come.
How to remove the readings on the meter
Instruction
1
All types of heatcounters differ from one another by the measuring principle of the flow of heat. There are turbine, viagraaccutane, solenoid, vane, and karaliova ultrasonic heat meters, which are based on differential pressure. The most popular electromagnetic and ultrasonic models.
The principle of operation of electromagnetic flowmeters is based on the fact that water has a conductivity. The water passing through the electromagnetic field of the coil excites an electromotive force proportional to the flow velocity. He really is a section of pipe fitted into it with electrodes and an electromagnetic coil.
Ultrasonic heat meters measure the time difference in signal propagation through water depending on its speed. So at zero flow, the difference between the time intervals will be zero, and at maximum flow rate the maximum. Design of ultrasonic heat meter electromagnetic resembles, but instead of the electrodes and the coil in the mounted ultrasonic sensors. Heat meters are installed at the inlets to a house.
2
In addition to the thermal energy that goes to heating, they provide measurements of the energy expended in heating the water in the tank. When renting statements, take into account the temperature at the inlet and outlet of the system. The volume of consumed thermal energy can be measured in Gcal, kJ, and MW.
3
All the readings of heat meters are transferred to Gcal. So 1 Gcal corresponds to a 1.163 MW and 4.187 GJ. It is mandatory to account for the time of operation of the device and its operating time. The readings you can take, depending on their technical equipment – with a storage console, laptop or printer.
Don't forget to control near the shield to have a register of evidence with which you will be able to control you exhibited heat supply organization amount.

Advice 6: How to read a water meter

Since then, in Russia there water meters, ordinary citizens have become much more to save water, and most importantly, now many people know how much you need to pay the management company or ZHEU for the consumed quantity of life-giving water flowing from the tap. But some people still don't understand and maybe didn't have time to figure out how to remove the readings from the water meter? Look at how it's done.
How to read a water meter
You will need
  • A running water meter
  • Receipt of payment
  • Ballpoint pen or pencil
Instruction
1
The flow rate of water consumed is displayed on the scoreboard of the water meter. They are of two types: drum digital mechanism and dial. When you work with the first you need to look at the control panel, where the accrued portion of the flow is displayed in the slot. This value and must be recorded. But if you want to know how much spent for the previous period, simply subtract the present (current) value previously recorded figure, and get the result.
2
Cheating a reading device of the second type (with the dial). Panel meter the small dials are arranged in a circle. There is a big arrow that points to the numbers on the outer edge of the meter - it shows tenths cubic meters (one share=100 liters). On other dials report tenths cubic meters (cubic meter=1000 liters), thousands and tens of thousands. At the same time, pay attention to the direction of the rotating arrows.
3
The necessary numbers for the transmission of indications are to the right, separated by a comma and a different color. The numbers on the left indicate the proportion of cubic meters, you also need the ones that show the whole cubic meters, that is located on the right (they change as water consumption).
4
There are so-called remote reading of meter. For this purpose, a counter is additionally necessary to mount the reed switch (a small electromagnetic device), and the mechanical parts of the meter (the roller, the cog or arrow) is a small magnet. The magnet, with a constant turnover of items, passes next to the reed, which at this time closes the contacts of the external low voltage circuit. By counting the number of pulses (considering their weight) that generated the counter, you can get the volume of water. Correct operation of the device for a certain period of time (day, hour, week, month) number of pulses will correspond to the readings of the built-in counter display.
Note
Some HOA (management company) consumed is added to your cold water amount of 40-60 rubles. This they attributed to the fact that water is consumed for washing of stairwells and communal leak.

With time and cause false readings may be hard water and thus the blockages in the pipes. You are wasting water as much as before, and receipts with the amounts coming out more. From this the output is: either change the device or take it in for repair.
Useful advice
By setting the counter to the hot and cold water, report it to the management company by completing the appropriate form, where you specify the initial costs of water.
If the installation was forces specialist, he must leave the form, which will make the first statement.

The meter is useful in that it not only takes readings and monitors the consumed water, but also determines whether you have leaks in the pipes. Close all the faucets and if the mechanism of the account is moving, the tightness in your home are not okay.

Advice 7: How to take the depositions of three-tariff electricity meter

Multi-tariff electricity meters are installed today in many new homes. And in older homes they may be embedded in the implementation of a major overhaul. The most common of them are electronic counters brand is mercury-200.
How to take the depositions of three-tariff electricity meter
Instruction
1
Before reading the meter , put on dielectric footwear. With him in the porch or hall, take a flashlight, even if the room is well lit. In any case, do not read the testimony in the light matches, candles, lighters. For clicking the spin button you will need to open the flap. Do not touch it to any live parts, even if they seem isolated. Do not touch anything except the buttons.
2
Aim the flashlight on the counter display if the indications on it are badly visible.
3
Check in which mode you have configured the counter: manual or automatic. Switching between these modes manually is impossible, it can be done only by the employees of the dispatch by special communication lines (if any). If the flap is closed on the lock, and the display of the meter switches between segments "T1", "T2", "T3" and "Sum" means automatic mode. When on any of the segments with the letter "T" and the digit indications on the display correspond to the rate number associated with this figure. When the included segment Sum, the readings correspond to the sum of all three rates.
4
If the counter is configured to work in manual mode, the indicator is always on the segment with the letter "T" and number of the tariff, which is valid in the current time of day. To switch segments "T1", "T2", "T3" and "Amount", press the upper key - they switch on the ring, and the display will appear the corresponding information. Only write the corresponding rates indications.
5
In case of three rates, the calculation of the cost consumed per month energy to exercise according to the following formula:C=(t1*e1)+(t2*e2)+(t3/e3), where c is the total cost consumed per month energy (RUB), en is the amount of energy consumed per month at the rate n (kWh), tn - the cost of one kilowatt-hour of electricity at the rate n ( € ).

Advice 8: How to transmit the meter readings for electricity

Companies and individual payers are paying their electricity consumption in accordance with the indications of the counters. These counters are installed in all organizations, in every house and every apartment. Payment for them on a monthly basis. It is necessary to transmit the readings of meters for electricity in the respective enterprises engaged in its delivery.
How to transmit the meter readings for electricity
Instruction
1
Companies that supply electricity in the homes of citizens and enterprises – commercial entities, therefore each has the right to use its own method of billing for electricity. You should be familiar with this technique and the rules of transfer of indications of counters on the website responsible for your region of the company. In addition, such consultation you'll be able to go directly to the office of the company or in the cash center, where you pay bills.
2
Usually in that case, if your counter as the counters to your neighbors, displayed in the hallway or on the landing, supplying electricity independently bypassed houses, collecting indications of counters. In accordance with these indications, you get a receipt and pay for electricity.
3
If your meter is hanging at home, in the apartment is shared, supervisors can set the time and a fixed date when they will appear in your home to take readings of counters. In case of your absence, the supervisor reserves the right to increase the counter for the last month on the estimated amount of your average monthly electricity consumption. Then it will be corrected by real data.
4
In many cities there is a system of transferring meter readings are taken directly by users of electricity, on paper. To do this in certain places hung the boxes, resembling the mail, where citizens will prevent the notification indicating the data of these devices.
5
Many energy companies are indicators taking into account the electricity consumption of appliances on their web sites. Find out the address of the website in the RCC or by Internet search, register and start to transfer the monthly electricity consumption data below correctly and in a timely manner to obtain a receipt for payment.

Advice 9: How to transfer the electricity meter to the apartment

Often the owners of apartments there is a desire to change the old electric meter to a newer expensive model. Modern instruments look good and will not spoil an interior hallway. Besides, it is very convenient to continuously monitor the consumption of family power and to be able at any time to take readings.
How to transfer the electricity meter to the apartment
You will need
  • - new counter;
  • - permission to transfer of the metering device of electricity.
Instruction
1
Agree on the possibility of transfer of electricity meter from the management office that is responsible for the maintenance of intrahouse networks. Write a statement and get permission to dismantle and the subsequent installation of the new appliance in his apartment.
2
If you get permission, make a statement with a request to transfer the location of your meter with a floor shield to your living space. Be sure to mention that warrant the provision of access controllers, who check the electricity meters and take readings.
3
Specialists of the management of the organization will hold all appropriate electrical work, test your new device and seal it. They should make his report on the implementation of migration in two copies, one of which will stay with you. All the work you have to pay for themselves.
4
But it may be another situation in which the transfer of the IPU will be impossible. Project documentation your home should provide for the possibility of transfer of the counter from the area in the apartment. The cost of any change in the plan of an apartment building is quite large, so before you insist on moving, think again.
5
If you want to perform electrical work on their own, note that arbitrarily disconnect and connect the electricity metering devices is strictly prohibited. This can only be done by a representative of the management of the organization.
6
A new device to replace choose from those that are designed to work in networks, which have a voltage of 220 volts and current up to ten amps. It needs to have a passport and a valid certificate of conformity. Even on the meter should be sealed with a mark that indicates gospoverki.
7
Modern devices provide multi-tariff system of payment of electricity, which will provide you with monthly savings in the payment.

Advice 10: "Sinupret": indications

"Sinupret" is a drug of plant origin. The remedy has anti-inflammatory, sekretomotornym and expectorant action. It is prescribed mainly to relieve swelling of the nasal mucosa with rhinitis and coughing.
"Sinupret": indications

Pharmacological properties and indications for use of the drug "Sinupret"



In the "Sinupret" contains extracts of the roots of gentian, grass, sorrel, primrose flowers, grass vervain, elder flowers. The drug reduces swelling of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract and restores its protective properties, promotes flow of secretions from the sinuses and upper divisions of the respiratory system, has on the body's antiviral effect.
"Sinupret" is produced in the form of tablets and drops for oral administration.


"Sinupret" prescribed in the complex treatment of diseases of the respiratory tract, accompanied by the formation of viscous secret:
- flu,
- acute or chronic sinusitis (inflammation of the sinuses),
- pharyngitis (inflammation of throat),
- laryngitis (inflammation of the mucosa of the larynx),
- the bronchitis (inflammatory disease of the bronchi with the defeat of the mucous membrane),
- tracheitis (inflammation of the lining of the trachea),
- tracheobronchitis,
- pneumonia (inflammation of lungs)
- pulmonary tuberculosis,
- cystic fibrosis (an inherited systemic disease characterized by lesions of the exocrine glands).

Instructions for use "Sinupret"



"Sinupret" appoint 50 drops or 2 tablets three times a day. The children, ranging in age from 2 to 6 years, should be given the drug at 15 drops three times daily, children aged 6 to 16 years 1 tablet or 25 drops of the drug 3 times a day. Adults take drops undiluted, children under 16 years the drug is diluted in water, juice or tea.
Forbidden to give "Sinupret" in the form of drops to children up to two years, in the form of pellets - children up to 6 years.


"Sinupret" is not used in patients in the presence of hypersensitivity to the drug component, and in the case of lactose intolerance. The drug is in the form of drops is contraindicated in patients with alcoholism or patients who have undergone treatment for alcoholism. "Sinupret" with caution is prescribed for treatment of epilepsy, liver, injuries of the brain. You can not use the drug during lactation period. While the use of antibiotics "Sinupret" can enhance their effect on the body.

During pregnancy "Sinupret" is used only in the form of pills and only as directed by your doctor. You can use the analogs of the drug, approved for use in this period. According to reviews, prolonged use "Sinupret" causes allergic reactions: redness, itching, shortness of breath, skin rash. The drug can also cause heartburn, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain.

Advice 11: "Levomekol": indications and reviews

Ointment "Levomekol" - combined tool, which includes an antibiotic. The drug has anti-inflammatory, resolves pus formation and stimulates tissue healing.
The Drug "Levomekol"

Indications and properties


Ointment "Levomekol" is used for the treatment of purulent wounds of different origin, including for the treatment of wounds infected with a mixed microflora in the necrotic phase. The drug is used in posleoperazionny period for therapy nezazivath wounds. Also the tool is used in the treatment of burns 2 and 3 degrees of severity, inflammatory skin diseases, trophic ulcers, boils.

Active components of drug "Treatment" are chloramphenicol and methyluracil. Antibiotic chloramphenicol against pathogenic bacteria, stopping their development and livelihoods. Methyluracil has immunomodulatory effects, promotes tissue regeneration and eliminates inflammatory processes.
Due to its composition "Levomekol" retains antibacterial activity even in the presence of purulent formations.


Usage instructions


For preparation used sterile gauze. They are impregnated with ointment, and then fill them the wound. Napkins should not be placed tightly, content should be "loose". In purulent cavity ointment injected through the catheter with a syringe. The drug in this case must be preheated to a temperature of 35-36°C.

In the treatment of cuts, boils and pimples ointment applied on gauze or cotton and priklepyvayut to the inflamed place and, if necessary, fixing the cloth patch. The drug should be used daily until the wound is completely free from necrotic lesions. Bandages need to be changed as purulent masses – once a day or more often.

Contraindications


Ointment do not use in case of hypersensitivity to its components in psoriasis and fungal infections of the skin. Pregnant women the drug can be used for a short period of time and on small surfaces. When using the ointment during lactation, breastfeeding should be suspended.
In rare cases, when using the ointment may be allergic reaction.


Reviews


Use the ointment during the postoperative period promotes effective healing of sutures. Including notes the effectiveness of "Levomecol" in case of divergence of seams. The drug promotes the "pulling" of pus, tissue healing, and disinfects the wound, which is also important in the presence of necrotic formations.

According to reviews, "nasal spray" helps in the treatment of boils, Kireev and acne is ointment good outputs purulent mass, after using this tool there are no scars and scar formations. The drug is also effective in the treatment of burns, cuts and other damage to the skin and tissues, accompanied by purulent inflammation.
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