Quite difficult to understand what is guided by a psychiatrist in diagnosis, if your knowledge about psychiatry as a science is limited. Psyche in Greek means "soul," and iatreia –"healing". From this it follows that the word "psychiatry" literally means treatment of the soul.
In today's world, psychiatry has acquired the status of a significant branch of medicine that deals with the study of mental disorders and their external manifestations, the treatment and prevention of mental disorders. But it should be noted the fact that successful treatment of any disease is important, proper and timely diagnosis.
In 1803. Rail, coined the term "psychiatry" (from the Greek psyche - spirit, soul, consciousness, iatrea - treatment)
Usually in the formulation of different diagnoses specialist uses various kinds of laboratory and instrumental researches allowing to diagnose quite accurately and quickly. However, in the diagnosis of mental disorders laboratory methods play only a supporting role.
Diagnosis of mental illness
The main method of diagnosis used by the psychiatrist, is descriptive method. Using it, the psychiatrist aims to identify mental phenomena, which are relevant for the emergence, course, and manifestations of mental illness. The doctor describes the mental life of the patient, based on the inspection data, the patient observation and collection of information obtained in the course of the conversation of the doctor with the patient and his loved ones.
Unfortunately, the descriptive method depends on the experience and abilities of the psychiatrist and is quite subjective. By studying the information about the patient, the doctor may set an important diagnostic data such as time of disease onset, its clinical course, changes in the nature and behavior of the patient during the years of the disease. The doctor collects and logs information separately from words of the patient (subjective history), and separately according to the patient's relatives (objective history).
To exclude the subjective evaluation of the patient, the psychiatrist uses a special rating scale the main clinical and psychopathological characteristics. On this scale, the doctor can accurately determine the symptoms of the disease, avoiding their double interpretation, a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the deviation.
"Mental health is a harmony of spiritual manifestation or the condition of spiritual life in which a person is fluent in all functions and actions of the soul." (P. O. Butkovsky)
During external examination of the body of the patient attention is given to the body type of the patient, the skin, which can hide a propensity of a patient to self-harm, drug abuse, antisocial or past traces of the migrated disasters. Diagnosed organs and systems of the patient to a chronic and complicated disease which can lead to mental illness. The psychiatrist also explores memory and the harmony of mind of the patient, type of his personality. Based on these observations, a psychiatrist and diagnoses the patient.