First, you can contact the organization that performs services for the provision of telephone services in your city (most likely, it of OJSC "Rostelecom"). Come to the office of the company and refer to any operator. At your request, it will provide a detailed printout of all incoming calls to your number. Don't forget to bring your passport, as this information is confidential and is not available to anyone. It can only get the person in whose name a contract with the service provider.
Second, it is possible to buy a new phone, which is equipped with a function of the determinant of the rooms. On the one hand, this is a very convenient solution to the problem – you no longer have to run on the GTS for another printout. However, it will require additional investments, which is important. Besides, modern phones are excessively Packed with a variety of features that you are unlikely to use in everyday life. It is also worth noting that there is a risk to get to a clever salesman who, pursuing their own benefit, will give you a whole PBX. Its value, as the set of available options, is much higher than ordinary phone, and the appearance is almost indistinguishable. And still the question remains: what to do with an old, fully functioning, phone.
The third method will require some financial investment. Buy a caller ID. This device performs only one function (detects incoming numbers), so the price is much lower. The dimensions of the device is comparable to a pack of cigarettes or a common type of Chinese alarms. It is easy to use, connects easily to your phone and does not require additional power sources (batteries or 220 V) operating on a voltage of the telephone network. However, in any case, the choice is yours, because we all have different needs and, quite possibly, you don't tend to use the public phone.