Instruction

1

Determine the rated capacity

**of the vehicle**the vehicle registration document or a certification plate in the car. They should contain information about the permissible weight and maximum permissible loads on the front and rear axle.2

Note the total permitted mass

**of the vehicle**. It determines the maximum lifting capacity, which is a critical number. If you constantly exceed this figure when loaded**car**, eventually it will lead to failure.3

To calculate the optimum installed capacity

**of the car**, fold the value of the maximum permissible load on the front axle and the magnitude of the maximum permissible load on the rear axle. This figure will reflect the weight of the cargo that will be transported by car with maximum efficiency.4

Calculate the actual gross weight of the loaded car. Easy to do, determining the load on each axle with the help of truck scales for axle-by-axle weighing. Truck scales can be of different designs. Some of the mass

**of the vehicle**with cargo, driver and passengers shall be determined without shutting down the machine when its speed to 5 km/h.5

Determine the actual weight attributed to each axis, and then fold the figures. Need to know what scales for weighing in movement are accurate to within 3%. If you need to determine the total mass

**of the vehicle**without errors, use the platform to the load cells. Machine at the weigh-in is installed on a special platform of such scales.6

And finally, to know the actual gross weight

**of the car**by installing on it's axis load sensors. In this case, the mass determination is performed quickly and without errors. This system is very effective, as it allows to ensure the full utilization of the machine without exceeding its lifting capacity.7

Compare the set and actual value of capacity. Total weight of driver, passengers and cargo should not exceed a total permitted weight

**of vehicle**and maximum permissible loads on its front and rear axle.# Advice 2: How to calculate the salary of the driver

Any business in any way associated with transportation. The importation of products into the warehouse, delivery of goods to customers, visiting trade is the most common work that uses the driver's labor. And in each of these variants there are different approaches to the need to calculate

**the salary of****the driver**.Instruction

1

As a rule, if the company has their drivers decorated under labor contracts, the remuneration is based accordingly to common practice: salary, opportunity award, paid sick leave, issuing of accountable money on fuel. Obviously, the unscrupulous approach to work, this practice is too expensive. Therefore, many companies are switching to what in business is called outsourcing. But if simply, is hiring drivers with their cars.

2

There are three most common ways to calculate

• Mileage;

• By the time;

• Fixed rate.Mileage – indicator that binds a payment most often. Every kilometer of the route is multiplied by a fixed rate, for example, 10 rubles. The result is the sum of one trip.

**the salary of****the driver**-a mercenary:• Mileage;

• By the time;

• Fixed rate.Mileage – indicator that binds a payment most often. Every kilometer of the route is multiplied by a fixed rate, for example, 10 rubles. The result is the sum of one trip.

3

In other situations it is more convenient to calculate

**the salary of****the driver**at the time worked. This method is useful for small mileage. Often it is used when transportation within a single city or area. Every hour of time is also multiplied by a fixed rate.4

In the case where long-established routes, drivers operate in good faith and are not interested to prolong the journey time, resorted to the establishment of fixed rates for the full route. This method to calculate

**the salary of****the driver**similar to work for a wage. However, as a rule, uniform rates determined on the basis of the above two approaches. Fixed rates are used in international cargo transportation by hired vehicles.# Advice 3: How to calculate the lift of the wing

The lifting force is a component of the full aerodynamic force, which arises from the asymmetry of the flow around a body flow. It is perpendicular to the velocity vector when the motion of a body in the flow of gas or liquid.

## The lifting force and the characteristics of the wing

The lift of the wing occurs because of a pressure difference on its upper and lower surfaces, it is necessary to keep the plane in the air. Air moving along the upper surface of the wing travels a longer path, since it moves faster than one that is under the wing. The increase of flow velocity leads to lower pressure over the wing the pressure drops below atmospheric and higher pressure under the wing pushes the plane up.

If you start from the laws of classical physics, the lifting force of the wing should be proportional to the angle of attack, raised to the second power. For a long time it was thought that to create the wing of a small scale with good load-bearing characteristics, is impossible. Only after the experiments of Bernoulli, it was found that this dependence is straightforward.

## The angle of attack

The angle of attack is one of the most important flight parameters, it represents the angle of inclination of the chord to the oncoming flow. The lifting force will be greater if you increase the angle of attack. However, this will increase drag, but the engine power is specially designed to overcome it.

When this angle reaches its critical value, the air flow stops around the wing and gently begin to swirl. Accordingly, decreases flow velocity and increases the pressure on the wing, this leads to the fact that the lift force drops sharply. This effect is called stall.

## The formula for calculating wing lift

Theorem Zhukovsky says that the magnitude of the lift force is proportional to the flow velocity and circulation, and density of the medium. The lift coefficient is called a dimensionless quantity that characterizes the lift of the wing. It can be determined by conducting an experiment in a wind tunnel, or calculate using the theorem Zhukovsky.

The formula for calculating the lift force has the form: Y=Cy * S (ρ*Vˆ2)/2. In the formula, Cy is the lift coefficient, S is the characteristic area and V is the free – stream velocity, and ρ is the air density at altitude. Spending calculations for this formula, not to be confused mass and weight the density of the air. To calculate lift force in Newtons, use the mass density of the air. At standard atmospheric conditions (temperature +15 ° C, ground level) it is 1,225 kg/m3.