Advice 1: How to determine broken rib

Rib fracture is the most common injury of the chest. It can occur due to a direct blow to the chest, strong squeezing of a thorax and in the fall. With age, the ribs become less elastic, so they break down more often in the elderly. By itself, the broken rib are not dangerous, danger is accompanying damage to internal organs. That is why it is very important to determine whether broken man, injured her chest, a rib.
How to determine broken rib
Instruction
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To determine whether the edge is broken the person just by looking at the damage to his chest, quite difficult. Accurately identify the presence or absence of a fracture is only one way – by making an x-ray of the chest. Suspect a rib fracture is still possible on several grounds.
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If after the trauma of the chest, you felt a sharp pain in the chest, which becomes even stronger when touching the injured place, it is likely that you have a broken rib or two. Moreover, pain and discomfort in the chest area can increase the traffic and to subside in a sitting position.
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Chest pain in the rib fracture may worsen with a deep breath, sneeze or cough. Man with a broken rib can be painful to laugh, and sometimes to speak.
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To determine whether the broken rib, it is possible to observe the behavior and condition of the person. Rib fracture is accompanied, as a rule, a violation of not only breathing, but also heart rate. The skin may be pale and acquire a bluish tint.
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When rib fracture on the injured area of the chest may appear bruising and swelling. The movement of the person with a broken rib become inhibited.
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The displacement of the fragments of broken ribs is very rare. To suspect you may the emergence of pneumothorax (accumulation of air in the pleura), manifested by dyspnea, weak shallow breathing, cyanosis of the skin. If in addition to these manifestations you notice signs of internal bleeding (dizziness, weakness and drop in blood pressure), then the wreckage of the broken ribs damaged blood vessels.
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Hemoptysis can develop in the case, if debris damaged the ribs can injure the tissue of the lungs.

Advice 2: How to treat broken ribs

Rib fractures most commonly occur with falls, blows to the chest, as well as road traffic accidents. In order for the consequences of the fracture was minimal, you need to know how to properly treated broken ribs.
If you suspect a rib fracture, it was necessary to do chest x-ray
Instruction
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Rib fractures can be single and multiple. The main symptom of this injury is a significant pain that increases with breathing and coughing. If you attach the head to the chest, you can hear the sounds of crepitate (typical pohrustyvaniâ friction of rubble).
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Rib fractures can be complicated by damage to internal organs of the chest. Outwardly it may appear extensive hemorrhage under the skin or do not have visible symptoms. That is why if you suspect the gem as soon as possible deliver the victim to the hospital.
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At the hospital, the physician immediately sent the patient for x-rays on the basis of which it will be possible to say how much damage the chest, as well as prescribe treatment.
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If rib fracture uncomplicated, the patient's rehabilitation will take place at home, without any plaster. The edges impose a pressure bandage, the victim is prescribed rest and advised to avoid sudden movements. The recovery period broken ribs is 3-4 weeks. During this time, special attention should be paid to the diet that must include foods rich in protein and calcium. You can also start taking vitamins that contains the shock dose of calcium and vitamin D.
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In the first days after a fracture is also appointed painkillers. If the ribs are broken on one side, usually the doctor will prescribe to put on the healthy side of mustard or banks. This is necessary to ensure that the lungs were not formed of stagnation, which can lead to pneumonia.
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Complicated rib fractures are treated in hospital, under the supervision of a physician. If the fracture of the internal organs was damaged, the patient required emergency surgery.

Advice 3: What to do if you broke a rib

Rib fractures usually occur as a result of a fall, a direct blow to the chest or due to its being crushed. As a rule, by itself, the broken rib a lot of danger is not. However, it may be complicated by concomitant damage to the lungs or pleura.
What to do if you broke a rib
Fractures occur most frequently in the largest bend of the ribs, i.e. on a lateral surface of the thorax. When the rib fracture the victim in most cases, pain in the chest, which is enhanced during talking, coughing or deep breathing. Considered less painful posture in the sitting position. However, at the slightest movement, the pain increasing again. Rib fractures are often accompanied by limited mobility of the chest, as well as lower respiratory capacity.

If the broken one rib, usually, no displacement of fragments of bones and damage to internal organs and tissues does not occur. This type of fracture does not require immediate hospitalization, and treatment of the patient is usually ambulatory in nature.

Upon detection of the rib fracture should not postpone visit to the doctor indefinitely. If for any reason it fails to do so in the near future, ask for help from the nearest person (relative, friend or neighbour). Produce anesthesia of the fracture site. To do this, apply the local procaine or alcohol-procaine blockade.

Put on the chest tight compression bandage. Instead of material it is possible to use a regular bandage or a towel. During the tying of the ends of the bandage exhale. Take a pain reliever.

If the fracture is a bone sticking out, a piece of rib joined to surrounding organs or have other dangerous situation after the imposition of fixation dressing try to immobilize myself. If breathing is difficult and the damage of the edge of the lung immediately call an ambulance.

Any fracture should be seen by a surgeon. You can't treat a rib fracture alone. After the examination, the doctor will recommend a sitting position, prescribe breathing exercises, physiotherapy treatment aimed at improving ventilation and warning them of stagnation, and will prescribe expectorant drugs.

Advice 4: What if the COP broke

Probably every experienced player popular shooter game Counter Strike has ever broken the game. What can we say about users who play dubious Assembly of the COP. What to doif your favorite game is broken?
What if the COP broke
Remember that the game admins are people too. Sometimes they are wrong and punish honest players. And often their actions are legitimate and correct. How to fix the problem?

If during the game you feel that the control of the character began to change, buttons do not respond on time or did not commit those actions, there was inhibition of play, unusual lag, then most likely, your game breaks. The mechanism is that the server sends to your computer in the folder with the game data that clog up and spoil your program.

It happens not instantly, but gradually. So at the first sign of the most correct action is to exit the game. The sooner you close, the COP, the less damage will be caused to the game file on the computer, and the easier it will be to fix it.

First, go to the game directory CS>cstrike and sort the files by date modified. Those files and folders that have changed during the last games and there are broken files.

Often suffer from game assets (models of characters, weapons, textures), that's why the game and don't want to work properly. This data is stored in resource folder. It is necessary to remove and replace standard folder that you can use from the installer or a previously saved backup of the game.

If not to replace it, don't despair. When entering the server the game will pump up the missing resources. But it spent some time.

If some of changed files you can see the config.cfg, so you changed the config file. Changes may be subtle, but dangerous for normal operation of the program. You can try to fix the config yourself, substitute the values of fps_max and fps_modem 101 instead of 1. But best of all just copy your pre-saved configuration file or the standard download from the Internet.

If you play Counter Strike, you should have at least saved the config file.cfg, and even better a full backup of the folder with the game. The easiest option to fix your program - just copy your saved copy and replace all the changed files on backup when copying.

It is very convenient to look for changes in files using Beyond compare. In the program window with one hand you open the game folder, and on the other hand, the folder with bekapa. The program quickly determines which files were changed. And they are easy to replace on the backup file.

To avoid re-breakage of the COP, in folder with the game you should tick "read-Only". This will protect you from certain types of hacking.

Also, if you log on to the server console to register the team сl_allowupload 0 and cl_allowdownload 0. This will prohibit the server to send information to your computer. However, if you don't have to miss any resource, you should put cl_allowdownload 1 to download.

Play fair, and this statement you do not need.

Advice 5: That might hurt under the ribs on the right

Pain in the right hypochondrium, in front or behind, can be caused by various diseases. Sometimes even experienced doctors find it difficult to correct diagnosis. Some of these diseases are very dangerous, so you should not resort to self-treatment or wait until the pain itself will pass. You must consult a qualified physician.
That might hurt under the ribs on the right

What is indicated by pain under the ribs on the right



Pain in the right upper quadrant can be a symptom of various diseases of liver, gall bladder, right lung, intestine, right kidney, adrenal gland, pancreas. And this is not a complete list of possible causes. To pain in this area can also cause trauma, injuries, some diseases of the nervous system, osteochondrosis in the thoracic spine, etc. So the doctor could make a correct diagnosis, the patient must accurately describe the sensation of pain, its localization and circumstances of this case. You also need to be examined and tested.

Very severe pain attacks in the right part of the torso below the ribs, often radiating to the groin, may indicate renal colic. As a rule, in this case, the pain covers the rear part of the body, but sometimes the front. Then an inexperienced doctor might confuse attack of renal colic with appendicitis. When inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) pain is usually "girding", with the same intensity.

Aching, dull pain in the front under the ribs may indicate liver disease. As a rule, such diseases are accompanied by yellowing of the skin and eyeballs. And in the gall bladder is a sharp pain localized by "spoon", but may radiate to the right shoulder blade. If we are talking about pneumonia, the pain increases when inhaling or coughing. Additional symptoms of pneumonia – fever, weakness, manifestations of General intoxication.

Pain under the right ribs can also be caused by diseases of the intestine, for example, enterocolitis. In any case, don't heat the area where you feel pain. Don't take painkillers as this will make diagnosis difficult. You should also refrain from physical activity, it is better not to be on bed rest. In any case, do not take choleretic drugs without prescription, as this may exacerbate the disease associated with the gallbladder.

Does pain in the right upper quadrant in a healthy person



Even perfectly healthy people can experience pain under the right ribs. This can happen if the person suffered significant physical loads, usually uncharacteristic. Or pain may occur during sharp turns, slopes, causing the internal organs in contact with the ribs.

Advice 6: How many ribs in a human

The human body is the perfect mechanism invented by nature and honed to perfection in the course of evolution. It all in its place, and the most thin-skinned bodies, usually have some protection.
How many ribs in a human
Heart and lungs – one of the most important organs in the human body. If no hands or feet, the body still can, it's okay to exist without breathing and blood circulation he can't deal with life functions. So nature intended special protection of these organs rib cage.

A natural "armor" of a person



There are 24 ribs that are divided in pairs (i.e. 12 pairs) attached to the vertebrae bones. The edge when considering has 2 end, on the front – a gradual transition into cartilage tissue, and on the back end – go to the head bump. Just the rear end of the rib connects with the thoracic vertebrae.

In appearance, the fin has a convex-concave structure. On the inner side, you can see the special groove, where in the body are nerves and blood vessels. Of the 12 pairs 10 connected to the breast bone cartilage tissue.

The ribs are their names. So the first 7 pairs are called "true" 3 "false". The other 2 pairs are called "fluctuating", because they have no connection with other ribs or with the sternum.

Interesting, but "set" of 12 pairs is not common to man. Sometimes because of genetic reasons or random mutations, 11 and 12 of the pair may be absent, or present extra 13th. These cases are officially registered and described.

In addition, the lower ribs can be removed with surgery. This is done for medical reasons or for the sake of aesthetics. By removing these edges can make the waist several already.

An interesting fact about ribs



Because we know that God created eve from Adam's rib, then in Europe for a long time it was believed that men must be one rib fewer than women. Believed in it so strongly that to deny such ideas happened only in the sixteenth century Andreas Veseljem, the founder of scientific anatomy.

Andreas was doing the autopsy that at the time was strictly forbidden. He secretly filmed the gallows with the gallows, brought home in pieces and in the deepest secrecy he was engaged in scientific research.

In the course were bribing the cemetery guards, who allowed him to dig svejesobranna corpses. Without high patronage, first of Charles V and then Philip II, the scientist couldn't do it long with impunity to carry out his experiments, nevertheless, he made up his anatomy and made more than two hundred amendments to the errors of Galen, the ancient anatomist. So the truth gradually took its place in the Treasury of scientific knowledge.

Advice 7: How to tell if broken tailbone

Fracture of the coccyx is severe trauma to the lower spine. It is accompanied by swelling, severe pain and inflammation. The main cause of fracture is trauma during childbirth, the result of a direct blow to the buttock or fall.
How to tell if broken tailbone

Symptoms of fractured coccyx



Learn about broken coccyx, can be characteristic symptoms. Signs of injury include pain, swelling and inflammation at the fracture site. Pain is worse during walking, the sudden movements, cough, they do not allow to sit in the correct position, the person begins to experience difficulties with defecation. External palpation detects abnormal mobility of the coccyx. Accurate diagnosis you can figure out after x-ray examination.
Sometimes a tailbone fracture can occur as a result of degenerative processes in the bones caused by calcium deficiency in the elderly.


To the provision of medical care can alleviate the condition of the victim, this should be a number of procedures. Lay the person so that the damaged area is not in contact with the surface, then give him an analgesic as a analgesic. When the pain subsides, take victim to a medical facility.

Treatment of fracture of the coccyx



Traumatology fracture of the coccyx is classified under the following types: jointed fracture, displaced fracture and without fracture when you change the position of the vertebrae. After accurate diagnosis an urgent need to start treatment, or may develop following trauma: wrong fusion of fragments, pieces of the coccyx, a violation of the process of defecation, disturbance of the functioning of the urinary system, squeezing and violation of functions of pelvic organs, cysts and growths on the coccyx, hematomas and abscesses, fistulas, blisters, difficulty when sitting or in motion, the deposition of salts.
Severe complications of a fracture of the coccyx are the pieces. They are identified by using x-ray, vaginal, rectal examination and magnetic resonance imaging.


Methods of treatment of fracture of the coccyx will depend on the severity and type of injury, as well as its complications. Conservative therapy is aimed at elimination of the main symptoms (pain, inflammation, swelling). With this purpose, the patient is prescribed painkillers and anti-inflammatory drugs, decongestants ointments, tinctures, compresses. In severe cases, the patient undergoes surgery to remove shrapnel.

The victim needs to stay in bed, eliminating any load on the spine. Under the tailbone of the patient is necessary to put a rubber mattress (circle). In the first days of therapy, the bowel movement should be conducted with the help of an enema. After the main course of treatment are appointed by rehabilitation procedures (massage, physiotherapy, exercise therapy, hirudotherapy, electro procedures).

Advice 8: How to identify a broken nose

The nose is the most prominent part of the face, so it people hurt the most. Nasal fractures are quite common – they come in several types, depending on what can be complicated or to coalesce relatively quickly. To be able to define this kind of fracture is quite important not to miss time for his treatment.
How to identify a broken nose
Instruction
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Nasal fractures are without bias and with a mix of bone fragments. Treatment is assigned depending on the first or second kind, since the fracture without displacement is a lighter injury, namely, a crack in the bone. A displaced fracture is a serious injury and usually entails a number of unpleasant consequences, as well as longer treatment, accompanied by various physiotherapeutic procedures.
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Also distinguish between open and closed fractures of the nose – in the first case, the integrity of the skin and the periosteum (tissue that protects the bone) remains intact, whereas in the second it is damaged and in the wound you see the bone and bone fragments. With an open fracture of the nose blood loss increases significantly – as well as the risk of falling into the wound of any infection that threatens serious complications.
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After the injury you should first gently palpating nose. If there is pronounced pain, probably the nasal bone is actually broken and requires urgent medical attention. In addition, a broken nose is usually characterized by a strong swelling of the damaged area, and subsequent bruising under the eyes, reminiscent of a kind of glasses – they usually appear immediately, but some time after the injury.
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Also characteristic symptom of a broken nose is shortness of breath, which in severe fractures becomes almost impossible. If you suspect such an injury of the nasal septum it is necessary to seek help in a medical facility where the doctor will examine and identify the nature of the injury by assigning an appropriate treatment. In the survey it propellerom the damaged area, identifying any debris from the crack or broken bone structure of the nasal septum, and send the victim to x-ray room where x-rays will be performed of the nasal bones. If the picture is determined by a displaced fracture, the patient will be held reposition (reset) of the bone fragments in place and assigned the further course of treatment.
Note
Despite the fact that nasal fractures are always accompanied by bleeding, not all cases of epistaxis suggests that the nose is broken.
Useful advice
When fracture of the nasal bones, the nose often changes form, shifting to the side, or West on the damaged area.

Advice 9: What are the dangers of removing edges

Remove the ribs are usually adopted by people in public, but today, when plastic surgery has become more accessible, women of average means decided on this surgery for a slim waist. It is performed under General anesthesia, because pain is not felt, but to pay for a wasp waist some have the rest of my life.
What are the dangers of removing edges
Thinking about removing the lower ribs for a slim waist, you should take into account that this surgery is indicated only for those women whose shape does not allow other methods available to achieve the desired standards of beauty and only in cases where such a physiological feature that really causes moral suffering, and changes shape improve the socialization of the patient and allow her to live an active life. Of course, in private clinics after necessary examinations surgery to remove ribs will hold everyone, but before that we will introduce with the consequences, most women, upon hearing about possible complications, waive the operation.

The operation itself does not make the waist narrower, changes only the visual perception of the figure by lengthening your waist. Postoperative scars are inevitable even if the superimposed cosmetic seams, will definitely have to go back to the doctors to make the scars less noticeable.

Why you need a 12th pair of ribs


Bottom of the twelfth pair of ribs protect the internal organs from shock and damage, after the removal of the kidneys, liver and spleen are vulnerable. If the woman leads an active life, engaged in extreme sports, such surgery is contraindicated. Not recommend it and nulliparous women who plan to become a mother in the future. To bear a child without the twelfth pair of ribs is much more difficult.

Complications after resection of the lower pairs of ribs


Accidental injury, accident even a simple fall on a slippery track can be deadly for those who have missing the bottom couple of ribs. Internal organs lose their only protection, and because even a minor blow force often leads to hemorrhage or separation of the body.

In his youth, postoperative complications almost never occur, but aging of the organism the absence of ribs makes itself known. Almost all patients who have resected the ribs, appears nephroptosis, with the omission of the kidneys. The problem starts with the urinary system, up to chronic pyelonephritis and glomerulonephritis, which shorten life by 5-10 years.
The lower pair of ribs involved in respiration, after the removal of the rib may be diseases of the respiratory system: bronchitis, disorders of the lung, emphysema.

Some patients notes the phantom pain, have sore ribs. This usually happens when the weather changes, the weather-sensitive people the probability of occurrence of phantom pain higher. Patients with excess weight, high body weight is not recommended to remove the bottom couple of ribs, as this will not improve the figure, and will only increase the load on the spine.
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