Why you need a sedative effect
There are two reasons for the use of sedatives. First, they help you painlessly through some surgery and to get rid of anxiety and fear. Second, help to soothe the least "compliant" patients, e.g., children. They are also used in the case when the patient needs a long time to preserve the stationary position of the body. Often sedatives are used along with painkillers.
Sedation and anesthesia
Sedative effect is mild and deep. Mild sedative effect is a result of the use of local anesthesia, i.e., anesthesia of certain areas of the body.
Often local anesthesia is carried out at the treatment of the teeth, the plastic surgeries. When this person is exposed to a sedative drug, is able to maintain awareness, to hear and understand speech, respond to touch. The patient is able to control all the vital functions of the organism.
Moderate sedation does not last long, but causes a side effect: the patient may feel drowsy. Other side effects – nausea and headache. Sometimes short-term memory loss.
Patients undergoing moderate sedation, the doctors do not recommended to sign important documents, to drive, to drink alcohol and to use the equipment within 24 hours after the procedure.
Deep sedation occurs as a result of General anesthesia. Thus partially or completely lost the reflex reaction of the body, the ability to control breathing and to answer questions.
After deep sedation, the patient longer to come back, increases the risk of complications from anesthesia.
What medications cause sedation?
Sedative drugs are divided into tranquilizers, aimed at eliminating the concerns of patients, hypnotics and antipsychotics.
Some tranquilizers in high doses act as hypnotics medications, such as benzodiazepines.
With increasing doses sedatives sedative effect is enhanced.
Among drugs that cause sedation, secrete barbiturates, benzodiazepines, natural remedies, Z-drugs and antihistamines.
Barbiturates include: amobarbital, pentobarbital, Seconal, phenobarbital.
Belong to benzodiazepines: clonazepam, diazepam, estazolam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, triazolam, temazepam, chlordiazepoxide, alprazolam.
Natural sedative medications include remedies based on herbs such as: ashwagandha, Duboisia, Catnip, Kava Kava, Mandrake, Valerian, cannabis.
Z-drugs is zaleplon, zolpidem, zopiclone.
Antihistamines include diphenhydramine, dimenhydrinate, doxylamine, phenergan, promethazine.
Advice 2: What is a sedative, how they act
Sedatives are called psychotropic medications that have a calming effect on the Central nervous system (CNS) without significant violations of its functions. Such funds are used in medicine mainly for the treatment of neurotic conditions.
Sedatives and their types
This group of drugs can reduce the excitability of the Central nervous system to exert regulatory effects by restoring the balance between the processes of excitation and inhibition and, if necessary, to strengthen the processes of inhibition. Sedative drugs have a less pronounced psychosedative effect than tranquilizers, and do not possess a hypnotic and muscle relaxant properties, and, importantly, did not cause ataxia.
The systematic use of sedatives for long time mental drug dependence does not occur to them. In recommended therapeutic doses, sedatives are not able to possess a hypnotic effect. But, providing a calming effect on the Central nervous system, they may provoke the onset and deepening of sleep.
Distinguish sedative drugs of synthetic and plant origin. Of the drugs of plant origin widely used remedies based on medicinal plants such as motherwort, Valerian officinalis, Melissa officinalis, patrinia medium (stone Valerian), Passiflora incarnated, peony and tropical plants of the family percovich Kava-Kava. Pharmacological effects of herbal sedatives is very diverse. For example, in addition to the Valeriana officinalis sedative effect that is associated with a reduction in the excitability of the Central nervous system, has antispasmodic properties, improves coronary circulation, regulates heart function, increases the secretion glands of the gastrointestinal tract and improves bile secretion.
Similar to Valerian effects on the body has motherwort, providing also the antihypertensive effect and reducing the heart rate. Passion flower and peony additionally have anticonvulsant action. Melissa inherent antipruritic, antihypertensive, antispasmodic, and prevent arrhythmia act. In addition, she has a slight choleretic effect, favorable way helps to restore intestinal flora and enhance secretion of the gastro-intestinal tract. Kava-Kava has an excellent hypnotic, antimicrobial, and analgesic effects.
Drugs that have a sedative effect
A calming effect is also characteristic of certain medications, which are often not considered as a means of influencing the Central nervous system. For such drugs sedative effect is related to the primary pharmacological effects. For example, a pronounced sedative effect can occur when you use a diuretic acetazolamide (Diakarb"), certain antihypertensive drugs — clonidine hydrochloride ("Clonidine"), or metildofy. Sedative and in some cases even have a soporific effect of some antihistamines, especially diphenhydramine hydrochloride (Diphenhydramine) and promethazine.
To achieve the best therapeutic effect is very important the right choice of sedatives or appropriate drug combinations and to establish the most effective dose that can be determined only specialist after prior consultation.