Advice 1: How to decipher the analysis on TTG

Thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH is a pituitary hormone, responsible for normal functioning of the thyroid. It aims to stimulate the production of thyroid hormones, which are called in turn affect the production of TSH. In the diagnosis of endocrine diseases a necessary step is the blood test for TSH.
How to decipher the analysis on TTG
Instruction
1
If the results of the hormonal analysis, the rate of TSH is exceeded, this may indicate the following disease:
- hypothyroidism

- insufficiency of adrenal function

- severe mental illness

various tumor (a tumor of the pituitary gland and others)
2
During pregnancy, high rate of TTG is normal. In addition, elevated TSH levels may occur because of taking some medicines, (x-ray contrast media, anticonvulsants, etc.) and exercise.
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Low TSH may indicate this diagnosis as:
- injury on the pituitary

- hyperthyroidism

- decrease in pituitary function
Besides this blood test for TSH may show a decline in its level as a result of therapy with preparations of thyroid hormones, psychological stress or starvation.
4
There are many reasons for the increase or decrease of the pituitary hormone TSH. However, accurate assessment of your body, based on the results of the analysis can only provide a professional endocrinologist.
Note
For thyrotropin pretty typical diurnal variations of the secretion. The maximum concentration of TSH in the blood observed in the night in 2-4 hours, a little falls to 6-8 o'clock in the morning, the minimum number of TSH falls in the evening 17-19 hours.
Useful advice
The norm for male indicators:
0-6 months – in the range of 0.47 to 4.5
7 months - 3 years – in the range of 0.47 and 2.1
4-6 years – in the range of 0.84-4.2 V
7-8 years – in the range of 0.89-3,5
9-10 years – in the range of 0.88-6,2
11 years – in the range of 0.58 to 3.7
12 years – in the range of 1.0 to 4.6
13 years – in the range of 0.97 to 3.7
14 years – in the range of 1.15 to 3.8
15 years – in the range of 0.67 to 2.6
16 years – in the range of 0.81 to 3.4
17 years – in the interval 0,95-3,0
18-19 years – in the range of 0.92 to 3.1
20-90 years – in the range of 0.35 to 4.5


The norm for female figures:
0-6 months – in the range of 0.61 to 4.5
7 months - 3 years – in the interval of 0.61 and 2.2
4-6 years – in the range of 0.72 to 3.0
7-8 years – in the range of 0.54-6,0
9-10 years – in the range of 1.24 to 5.6
11 years – in the range of 0.39 and 2.9
12 years – in the range of 1.06-4,2
13 years – in the range of 1.01 to 4.8
14 years – in the range of 0.77-4,3
15 years – in the range of 0.52 and 2.9
16 years – in the range of 0.46 to 3.7
17 years – in the range of 0.55 to 3.6
18-19 years – in the range of 0.95 to 4.6
20-90 years – in the range of 0.35 to 4.5


The norm during pregnancy from 1 to 40 weeks – in the range of 0.2 to 3.5

Advice 2: How to decipher the analysis on hormones

Hormones are special chemicals produced by endocrine glands. The blood carries them from the point of generation to other internal organs. Hormones alter the tissue of an organ, aiding its growth and development. In addition, they are involved in the regulation of metabolism. Study of hormonal performed to diagnose a number of diseases: infertility, thyroid disease, etc. You can try to decrypt self - analysis of blood on hormones, but the final diagnosis should be put physician.
How to decipher the analysis on hormones
Instruction
1
Testosterone is produced in the human body regardless of sex. For men it is the main sex hormone. The normal testosterone blood men is in the range from 2 to 10 ng/ml. For women the figure is 0.2-1.0 ng/ml. increasing the concentration of testosterone in men indicates diseases (tumors) of the testes or early puberty. The decline affects the quality of sperm and can also be a symptom of some dangerous diseases of the kidneys or liver. In women the increase in this hormone can cause an early miscarriage.
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To female sex hormones include the estrogens: progesterone and estradiol. They prepare the uterus for fertilization, regulate menstrual cycle, ensure the development of the egg and helps to preserve the fruit. Their concentration in blood varies depending on the phase of the cycle. For progesterone, the norms are:- the follicular phase and 1.0-2.2 nm/l;- luteal phase - 23,0-30,0 nm/l;- postmenopausal - 1,0-1.8 nm/l. Indicators of estradiol should not exceed the following limits:- follicular phase - 198-284 PM/l;- luteal phase - 439-570 PM/l;- postmenopausal - 51-133 PM/L. the excess of the normal level of female hormones indicates ovarian tumors and adrenal, cirrhosis, pregnancy. A decrease is observed in hypoplasia and sclerosis of the ovaries, lack of ovulation and threatened abortion.
3
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) secreted by the pituitary gland and stimulates the development of follicles in females and seminiferous tubules in men. The norm for the male body is from 2 to 10 u/l for female – from 4 to 150 u/l depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. The concentration of FSH is increased in disorders of sperm production, the deterioration of the functions of the ovaries, after castration and at the menopause. FSH decreases under the influence of hormonal contraceptives, during pregnancy and in prostate cancer.
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Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the production of sex hormones in men and women. Violation of function of sexual glands increases the concentration of LH, and high doses of estrogen decreases. Normal ranges in men from 2 to 9 u/l among women from 0.61 to 94 u/l in different phases of the cycle.
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Prolactin is responsible in female body for breast development and the appearance of breast milk after birth. His normal rate is during pregnancy from 500 to 10,000 mIU/L. Improvement is gradual, depending on the term. In men, prolactin is also present in the range from 58 to 475 Miu/L.
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For the assessment of thyroid explore content in human blood thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Its norm is 0.2 to 3.2 Miu/L. Increased evidence of failure of the thyroid gland, and decrease their overabundance.
Note
Note that the permissible limits are to some extent conditional. The amount of any hormones can vary significantly even in perfectly healthy person during the day.
Useful advice
Remember that deviations from the norm one parameter of the diagnosis to not put. Contact your doctor who will assess your health status on a range of parameters. If necessary, he will prescribe tests for other hormones.

Advice 3: How to read thyroid test

Examination of the thyroid gland is carried out by endocrinologists and other doctors. The study aims to identify autoimmune inflammatory process and the definition of the function body.
How to read thyroid test
Any testsrelated to the thyroid gland are performed only as directed by your doctor. Self such a survey take place is inappropriate. Results it is advisable to decipher with the assistance of the specialist.

Complex laboratory testing of thyroid implies the determination of thyroid-stimulating and thyroid hormones, thyroglobulin and antibodies to tissues and proteins of the body.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone


Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is produced in the pituitary gland on the principle of feedback. So the decrease in the level of thyroid hormones the thyroid gland, causes an increase in TSH levels.

Reference values for TSH are specified individually by each laboratory depending on the reagents. Usually the norm is 0.4-4 mkme/ml in pregnant women the concentration of the hormone should be below 2.5 mkme/ml.

A decrease in TSH below 0.4 indicates the presence of hyperthyroidism. In that case, if the thyroid hormones are higher than normal, we are talking about manifestos thyrotoxicosis, if normal, then subclinical.
The use of somatotropin, bromcriptine, carbamzepine, cyproheptadine, dopamine, heparin, levodopa, metergoline, phentolamine can lead to lower TSH.


In some cases, the decrease of TSH may be associated with adrenal pathology.

Increasing the concentration of TSH more than 4 mkme/ml is evidence of the hypothyroidism. Manifestum called hypothyroidism at low values of thyroid hormones, subclinical - when their normal value. In that case, if the TSH is above 10 mkme/ml, then we can talk about manifestos hypothyroidism even with normal values of thyroid hormones.
TSH may rise due to the use of morphine, amiodarone, benserazide, clomiphene, galopiredol, iodide, lithium, methimazole, phenothiazine, propranolol, iodine-containing radiopaque media.


More than normal TSH can be in patients with severe somatic and mental diseases. Stress, primary adrenal insufficiency may also be accompanied by an increase in the concentration of the hormone.

Thyroid hormones


Thyroid hormones are produced directly in the thyroid gland, some of them are activated in the peripheral tissues.
In the laboratory perform tests for total and free thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Determination of the free hormone is considered to be more reliable for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases.

Low rates indicates the primary (high TSH) or secondary (low TSH) and hypothyroidism.
Thyroid hormones react to pregnancy, severe stress, intake of oral contraceptives.

In that case, if T4 is higher than normal, then the patient has primary or secondary hyperthyroidism.

The thyroglobulin


Analysis of thyroglobulin is prescribed for the treatment of thyroid cancer. Increasing the concentration of this protein after surgery may indicate recurrence of malignancy. In addition, the high concentration of thyroglobulin can be associated with autoimmune inflammation of the thyroid gland.

Antibodies


A high titer of antibodies indicates the presence of autoimmune process. Most often determined of antibodies in the blood to thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO), antibodies to thyroglobulin (anti-TG) and TSH receptor antibody (anti-rtth).

Increasing the concentration of any antibody can be in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. For diffuse toxic goiter the most characteristic high values of anti-RTG.

Studies show that the presence of antibodies not always associated with thyroid disease.

Advice 4: How to decipher the biochemical analysis of blood

In the composition of blood of a healthy person of the various elements are in strictly certain quantity. The change of cell balance can be the first sign of the disease. Therefore, biochemical analysis of blood is one of the best diagnostic methods. According to the results determine the condition of the metabolism and internal organs. Biochemistry of blood includes a significant list of indicators. The doctor to confirm the diagnosis, the patient's complaints may assign the study of all components or only some of them. The basic values of biochemical analysis ofa blood you can decipher yourself. But an accurate diagnosis will put a doctor-a specialist.
How to decipher the biochemical analysis of blood
Instruction
1
Bilirubin. This pigment is formed in the liver. Normal bilirubin level is 5-20 µmol/L. the Increase of the indicator of malfunctions of the liver and the possible presence of such diseases as: hepatitis, gallstones, cancer, acute poisoning, liver cirrhosis, etc. However, to affect the bilirubin may long diet and lack of vitamin B12.
2
The total protein. He is involved in the clotting of bloodand the transport of nutrients to the organs and tissues of the body. Normal levels of total protein – 64 to 84 g/L. Increase of this indicator – a sign of infections, diseases of the blood or joints, dehydration of the body. If the total protein level falls, the need to pay special attention to the liver, intestines, kidneys.
3
C-reactive protein. In the blood of a healthy person it's virtually nonexistent. Identifying in the result of biochemical analysisand blood C-reactive protein indicates an inflammatory process. The higher the score, the greater the inflammation. For this factor it is possible to confirm appendicitis, pneumonia, other acute infections as well as rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic joint diseases.
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Glucose. Its amount is determined by the status of carbohydrate metabolism. When the proper metabolism of glucose is found 3,30 – 5,50 mmol/l. the Decline detected in diseases of the endocrine system and liver, and increase in diabetes.
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Urea. This component of blood is formed by the breakdown of proteins and excreted by the kidneys. Normal the content of 2,5-8,3 mmol/l. the Increase of urea observed in kidney disease, heart failure, intestinal obstruction and urinary tract, as well as when malignancy and bleeding.
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Creatinine. Along with urea, he participates in the kidneys and regulates the energy metabolism of tissues of the body. The normal creatinine differs depending on the sex of the patient. For men, the figure is 62-115 µmol/l, for women – 53-97 µmol/L. exceeded the limit level indicates kidney disease and hyperthyroidism.
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ALT (alanine aminotransferase). This enzyme is found in liver, kidney and heart. The norm for men is not higher than 41 u/l, female up to 31 u/L. Increased ALT indicates changes in the heart, liver, or kidneys, as well as viral hepatitis, cirrhosis or liver cancer, heart attack etc.
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AST (aspartate aminotransferase). This cellular enzyme is investigated along with the ALT and has the same limits. At higher levels of AST may be detected hepatitis, pancreatitis, liver cancer, heart attack etc.
9
Amylase. It can be detected in the pancreas, where the breakdown of carbohydrates. The rate of amylase – 28-100 u/L. the Increase of the maximum allowable level – a sign of pancreatitis, diabetes, cholecystitis, kidney and pancreas. The decrease in amylase is revealed in the poor performance of the thyroid gland.
10
Cholesterol. In healthy blood, its level must not exceed 3.5 to 6.5 mmol/l Cholesterol increases in atherosclerosis, vascular disease and heart. Its decrease indicates tuberculosis, pancreatitis, anemia.

Advice 5: How to be tested for thyroid hormones

A necessary condition for the harmonious development and functioning of the human body is a normal level of hormones of the thyroid gland. They affect the growth and differentiation of tissues in the body, metabolic processes, stimulate protein synthesis and influence the formation of reproductive (sexual development, menstrual function, ovulation). The formation of hormones of the thyroid gland depends on intake of iodine in the human body.
How to be tested for thyroid hormones
Instruction
1
For the diagnosis of diseases related to the hormones of the thyroid gland, determine blood total T3 (total triiodothyronine), total T4 (total thyroxine), free T3 (free triiodothyronine), free T4 (thyroxine free). For example, in hypothyroidism a decrease in the thyroid gland, in the blood we are seeing increased levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), low numbers of free thyroxine (T4), total thyroxine (T4) and total triiodothyronine. Insufficient function of the hypothalamus and pituitary in hypothyroidism says the decrease in the level of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone). In hyperthyroidism there is a decrease of TSH concentration. Thyrotoxicosis T4 (free thyroxine) can remain in the normal range, but the definition of free triiodothyronine (T3) is very informative, increasing its concentration in the blood.
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To see the functional state of the thyroid gland by using analysis of blood on hormones. The study is carried out on an empty stomach, the blood from the vein. You need to stop taking iodine-containing medications for 3 days prior to the examination. To eliminate the hormones of the thyroid gland 7 days before the procedure studies. Previously recommended, in the case of treatment with hormones of the thyroid gland, consult with your endocrinologist for a possible lifting of iodine-containing drugs. You must limit physical activity, avoid emotional stress, avoid alcohol and Smoking.
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In a statement issued in the diagnostic center, it will show values of all hormones of thyroid gland: T3 norm for men and women is 1.8 and 4.2 PG/ml; free T3 is 1.8 and 4.2 PG/ml; total T4 (thyroxine) - 4,5-10,9 g/DL; free T4 (free thyroxine) is 0.8 to 1.3 ng/DL; TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) - 0,35-5,5 mkme/ml.
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