Testosterone is produced in the human body regardless of sex. For men it is the main sex hormone. The normal testosterone blood men is in the range from 2 to 10 ng/ml. For women the figure is 0.2-1.0 ng/ml. increasing the concentration of testosterone in men indicates diseases (tumors) of the testes or early puberty. The decline affects the quality of sperm and can also be a symptom of some dangerous diseases of the kidneys or liver. In women the increase in this hormone can cause an early miscarriage.
To female sex hormones include the estrogens: progesterone and estradiol. They prepare the uterus for fertilization, regulate menstrual cycle, ensure the development of the egg and helps to preserve the fruit. Their concentration in blood varies depending on the phase of the cycle. For progesterone, the norms are:- the follicular phase and 1.0-2.2 nm/l;- luteal phase - 23,0-30,0 nm/l;- postmenopausal - 1,0-1.8 nm/l. Indicators of estradiol should not exceed the following limits:- follicular phase - 198-284 PM/l;- luteal phase - 439-570 PM/l;- postmenopausal - 51-133 PM/L. the excess of the normal level of female hormones indicates ovarian tumors and adrenal, cirrhosis, pregnancy. A decrease is observed in hypoplasia and sclerosis of the ovaries, lack of ovulation and threatened abortion.
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) secreted by the pituitary gland and stimulates the development of follicles in females and seminiferous tubules in men. The norm for the male body is from 2 to 10 u/l for female – from 4 to 150 u/l depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. The concentration of FSH is increased in disorders of sperm production, the deterioration of the functions of the ovaries, after castration and at the menopause. FSH decreases under the influence of hormonal contraceptives, during pregnancy and in prostate cancer.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the production of sex hormones in men and women. Violation of function of sexual glands increases the concentration of LH, and high doses of estrogen decreases. Normal ranges in men from 2 to 9 u/l among women from 0.61 to 94 u/l in different phases of the cycle.
Prolactin is responsible in female body for breast development and the appearance of breast milk after birth. His normal rate is during pregnancy from 500 to 10,000 mIU/L. Improvement is gradual, depending on the term. In men, prolactin is also present in the range from 58 to 475 Miu/L.
For the assessment of thyroid explore content in human blood thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Its norm is 0.2 to 3.2 Miu/L. Increased evidence of failure of the thyroid gland, and decrease their overabundance.