Many people believe that ticks are found only on trees, but this is a misconception. Generally, their habitat is grass and low bushes, where they take expectant position. At the slightest contact of person with the branch of a tick clings to its prey and, finding the softest spot on the body, begins to sink its jaw into the skin. The amount of blood that it can suck in a person not so great, compared to what harm when it is applied. Because ticks is the vectors of diseases such as encephalitis and Lyme disease. It is not always possible to detect an insect, on the site of the bite, which is very dangerous, people may not even know that he was bitten by a tick. Therefore, it is necessary to know the basic signs of the bite of this insect.
Symptoms can appear immediately, but after a couple of weeks. It all depends on how long the tick has been time in your skin. The longer he stayed there, the greater the number of the viruses have time to penetrate into the body.
The most common symptoms of tick bites are fever, headaches, muscle pain, sweating and irritability.
The most common symptoms of tick bites are fever, headaches, muscle pain, sweating and irritability.
On the site of the bite will remain red, which increases in diameter and the center forms a white spot. Sometimes the diameter of the sting can reach 10 centimeters. Sometimes people do not attach importance to such spots on your body, and when after a few weeks the redness on the site of the bite disappears completely forget about it, but in vain. This does not mean that all went well: if the tick was contagious, the disease just went from the skin to the internal organs.
If you are bitten by a tick infected with encephalitis, the consequences will not keep itself waiting. You may receive an upset stomach, weakness, fever.In severe forms of the disease there is severe headache, high fever, the infected person becomes lost in space. This may mean that the virus caused inflammation of the spinal cord and brain, struck the Central nervous system. The consequences of the disease can be dire. So at the first suspicion of a tick bite should seek help from a doctor.
A necessary measure of protection from the bites of ticks are annual vaccinations. But you yourself can try to protect themselves. During walks in nature as often as possible make the inspection the most exposed places, try not to wear open things, at the first suspicion of a bite seek medical help.
Advice 2 : How to recognize a tick
Spring and summer ticks are most active. However, the victim of their attacks can be even in October, especially in the morning or evening when it's chilly outside. To protect yourself from their bites are quite capable to everyone.
Remember that tick can get to the skin not only from the tree. They mostly live in the grass or bushes where it is more convenient to quietly crawl to the animal or human. You only need to touch the branches, began to tick its way to a vulnerable place, and began to bite into the skin. Remember, not concerned whether you are walking branches, do not go on the grass.
Many did not notice a tick on your body, because its bite is almost imperceptible. Moreover, the first symptoms usually occur only a few days or even weeks. It depends on the characteristics of the organism and to how many viruses and waste products of the mites got into your body. Among the symptoms: fever, muscle and headaches, irritability, fatigue, sweating.
If the tick that bit you was a carrier of the encephalitis, then to the specified symptoms quickly and others are having more serious consequences. Please note, if you have a disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, severe weakness, increasing head pain, and you begin to lose orientation in space, perhaps it is a symptoms of spinal cord and brain in connection with the penetration into the body of the tick-borne encephalitis virus. Immediately consult a doctor!
Carefully inspect the place of the alleged bite. It is sure to be redness, which begins to increase in size. In the center is the spot white. While the spot can reach size 10 inches. Pay attention to the discoloration of the skin after returning from the street. Redness of the same after some time may disappear altogether.
The measures of protection against tick bites can be attributed to vaccination. The vaccine is required to enter once a year. You can do this by contacting the clinic. In addition, while outdoors, try not to expose the body. Be sure to inspect after each outing, ask for help of family or friends.
At the first sign of a tick bite or suspected bite, seek medical attention immediately.
Advice 3 : How to identify the species of tick
When the tick bites it is crucial to seek medical help. The doctor will check whether the tick is removed, whereupon an insect, will be submitted for examination to the laboratory. In appearance it is impossible to determine encephalitis is a mite or not. In the same laboratory using a highly sensitive PCR method and will detect virus RNA. Before turning to the doctor, you can try to identify the species of the mites, to ascertain if in principle this kind of to be a carrier of the disease.
Carriers of tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease and other serious diseases are two kinds of ticks: the taiga and the dog. The first of these is most common in Siberia and the far East. In the European part of Russia circulated a dog tick. From taiga ticks red body with black pattern. Dog ticks like a gray pouch, all six legs and the head is ahead of them.
The moose tick is a carrier of encephalitis, but in August, which accounts for the peak activity of these insects, the moose tick is often confused with taiga. He has a flat body, tenacious, thick legs, sharp proboscis with which it pierces the skin. These ticks tend to climb in hair, where they are very difficult to pull out. They fly very bad and close. Wings they only need to fly to moose or deer. Then they drop their wings, and their whole future life is in the body of this wild animal. Per person moose ticks landed "by mistake". Their bites are very painful and unpleasant. But do not carry with them the danger of Contracting encephalitis. From taiga ticks them confused due to the particular "reset" wings. If you look closely, they have 6 legs, not 8, and their body structure is closer to the fly than to the taiga tick.
Working in agriculture or in the country, you can also face different types of mites. So, in the garden plots in may and June, many gardeners are seeing ticks ticks. These soil mites for humans not dangerous. They do not suck blood of humans and animals do not attack and feed mostly on reptiles and birds. Another common in rural areas, the form of clamp – gamasoidea mites. Their size is 0.3-4 mm, body yellowish. During the day they usually hide, and at night attack the fowls (chickens, etc.). Also, these insects can suck blood from rodents. In contact with infected birds and rodents can get rat or bird mite dermatitis. The people working with grain, you can face the granary mites. Their bites cause an allergic reaction, irritation and respiratory symptoms.
Advice 4 : How to distinguish an infected tick from a healthy
The consequences from the bite of a small insect like a tick can be quite deplorable – these insects are vectors of tick-borne encephalitis, borreliosis, or Lyme disease, tick-borne typhus and relapsing typhus, hemorrhagic fever, tularemia, and other dangerous diseases.
Mites belong to the order Acarina of the class Arachnida. They are one of the most ancient groups of arthropods on the planet. As a rule, these insects feed on decomposition products of plants, soil fungi or small arthropods. The world fauna includes more than 40 thousand species of mites, many of which are virtually unstudied.
Some species of ticks are adapted to feeding on the blood of living creatures, the most common among them – ticks (Ixodoidea). Real threat of infection represent the two main types of Ixodes Persulcatus (taiga tick), living in Asia and some regions of the European part of Russia, as well as Ixodes Ricinus (European forest tick), common in the European part of the country.
Body taiga and the European wood tick is covered by a hard shell and is equipped with 4 pairs of legs. In females, the inner part of the body that can be stretched, allowing them to absorb a large quantity of blood, hundreds of times greater than the weight of a hungry tick. Males are smaller in size and attach themselves to the victim for a short time (less than one hour). In the surrounding area ticks are guided through touch and smell, as the eyes of these insects have not. But the sense of smell is extremely acute – the mites are able to smell an animal or people at a distance more than 10 meters.
Another type of mites that live on the territory of Russia, are members of the genus Dermacentor. They carry encephalitis, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, tularemia and other infections, in addition, these mites are the main culprits of piroplasmosis in dogs. The main victims of young forms of ticks of the genus Dermacentor are small rodents, so their number depends on the number of populations of mice. These mites can be distinguished by the characteristic white pattern on the back. A tick of the genus Dermacentor in contrast to Ixodes trial makes a series of punctures before it begins to suck blood.
Carriers of encephalitis are also Haemaphysalis ticks of the family. They live in the Crimea, the Caucasus, the far East, preferring the birch and larch, and deciduous aspen forest. The base of the proboscis they are rectangular, and the dorsal shield – one color, and the edge is framed with scallops. Adult ticks Haemaphysalis parasitize mostly on animals, but can attack people.
Where did the nature come from infected ticks? In fact, the natural foci of encephalitis existed in Siberia long before the coming of man. Moreover, it is unknown whether initially the causative agent of encephalitis associated with only ticks or vertebrates. In the process of evolution, the virus has adapted to the presence in organisms of both.
On external signs to distinguish an infected tick from uninfected individuals of the same species impossible. To accurately determine the presence of infection in the tick it is possible only after special analyses that are carried out in medical laboratories. The percentage of infected ticks varies for different regions of the country. In the European territory of the Russian Federation are infected with the virus of encephalitis no more than 2-3% of insects. In Siberia and the far East this figure is slightly higher – up to 20%.
Advice 5 : How to check whether the dangerous tick
Going on nature, it is necessary to remember about security. In the thick grass and low branches of trees, you wait ticks that can be carriers of deadly diseases. Even short-term tick bite could become infected.
Tick-borne encephalitis is characterized by symptoms of intoxication and fever. The virus frequently affects the Central and peripheral nervous system. The acute form of the disease can lead to paralysis and death.
The symptoms of tick-borne encephalitis is not apparent immediately. The incubation period averages 7 to 14 days. Develops body aches, muscle weakness, numbness of the skin of the face and neck, flu-like condition. The temperature may be increased to 38-40 degrees. The person feels malaise, can feel a sharp headache, may cause nausea and vomiting. If you suspect a tick-borne encephalitis should seek medical assistance in the infectious diseases Department.
Lyme borreliosis, or Lyme disease, is caused by the bacteria group Borrelia burgdorferi. Foci of Lyme borreliosis in nature coincide with the habitat of ticks. The incidence is also seasonal in nature and depends on the tick activity.
The most noticeable and common symptom of Lyme disease – local redness at the bite area that appeared not earlier than a week. Gradually, the erythema increases in size and can reach several tens of centimeters in diameter. However immediately arose in the time of the bite redness says more about a simple reaction to the tick bite than the infection. Allergic redness passes quickly, whereas Borrelia erythema will only increase.
Lyme disease possible symptom of intoxication accompanying the erythema. It appears low-grade fever, headache, chills, fatigue and body aches. After 3-4 weeks the redness may subside, but keep in mind that untreated infection disseminatum throughout the body. Can affect the organs of the nervous and cardiovascular systems. In the chronic form of borreliosis manifested by skin lesions and joints. At a later stage to treat the infection is very difficult, so early diagnosis is important.
Early in the disease the Borrelia bacteria is sensitive to antibiotics. The sooner you start treatment, the better the chances of full recovery, no complications, and prevention of chronicity. It is important still, as soon as possible to remove the tick. Preventive vaccine against borreliosis does not exist.
To protect themselves from potentially dangerous ticks, going to the woods, wear maximally closed clothes, high shoes and a hat. Use chemicals, frightening off of pincers. Upon return, carefully inspect themselves for the presence of parasites. If you still find mites on the body, carefully remove it using tweezers, surgical clip, a special device or a simple thread.
Because the symptoms of these terrible diseases do not appear immediately, it is advisable to test the tick for carriers of infection. For this you need to take it to a virological laboratory. After removing the tick, place it in a glass container with a tight lid, and put dampened cotton wool. Enclosed bottle keep in the fridge, if you can not deliver it to the laboratory immediately. To conduct the microscopic diagnosis of the tick should be alive. PCR diagnostics may use fragments of the parasitic animal, but this method is not very common.
Give blood tests to determine the presence of the disease. Directly after the bite tests, of course, will show nothing. After 10 days of possible PCR blood testing for encephalitis and Lyme disease. Two weeks later revealed antibodies to tick-borne encephalitis virus. Antibodies to Borrelia can be detected only after a month.