Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay helps to determine the presence or absence of certain antibodies and to estimate their number.
By ELISA to determine the level of immunoglobulins, hormones, immunological complexes and other biologically active substances.
Materials for analysis are: blood, amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, contents of the vitreous body, etc.
Compared to other methods, the ELISA has the following advantages: high sensitivity, a component of 90%, convenience and speed of carrying out diagnostic reactions, shelf life of ingredients needed for the IFA (year or longer), low cost diagnostic kits, suitability for mass surveys, easy tracing of dynamics of development of infectious process. ELISA makes it possible to automate stages of the reactions and use minimal volumes of test material, there is a possibility of early diagnosis of infections.
A drawback of the study is the fact that this method allows to set only the body's immune response, not to identify the pathogen. Using the method of enzyme immunoassay to determine the presence of antigens of infectious agents: viral hepatitis, syphilis, HIV, TORCH, parasitos, chlamydia. Using ELISA to detect antibodies to infection, provided that the organism has developed. The analysis allows to distinguish between acute and chronic forms of the disease, to highlight the stage of the disease, to detect healthy carriers and monitor the process of vaccination.
A blood test by ELISA pass from the cubital vein in the morning on an empty stomach. You must exclude the day before analysis, the intake of alcohol and Smoking, you should avoid heavy physical exertion. Immediately before the procedure you need to sit quietly for 10-15 minutes and relax. Blood pass before you start taking drugs or not earlier than after 10-14 days. after their cancellation. If necessary, medication should notify the attending physician.
Depending on the condition of the immune system and the period of infection can be obtained a negative result does not entirely exclude the presence of infection. In doubtful cases it is necessary to re-study. It is necessary to pass not earlier than 2-4 weeks. Be aware that the presence of antibodies in the serum may indicate only the contact of the organism with the pathogen in the past or currently.