Advice 1: How to donate blood for antibodies

Antibodies in the blood produced as the immune system's response to those or other pathological processes in the body. A doctor can prescribe to hand over a blood on antibodies for various diseases. For example, in the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, thyroid abnormalities, immune system, rhesus-conflict during pregnancy, worm infestations etc. in Order to obtain reliable results of the analysis need 2-3 days to observe a daily routine and nutrition.
How to donate blood for antibodies
Instruction
1
The blood on antibodies taken from a vein. A prerequisite is the delivery of it early in the morning on an empty stomach. Directly before testing, you can not drink any drinks besides water.
2
2-3 days before delivery of the analysis should follow a diet. Eliminate from the diet all fatty, fried, spicy, salty, smoked, canned. Not to drink strong tea, coffee, alcoholic drinks, fruit juice, medicine based on alcohol. Time to go to bed, do not smoke.
3
If possible, you should eliminate the use of all drugs, as this may give inaccurate analysis results. If the reception of some medicines to abort is impossible, notify your doctor who ordered the blood test.
4
When you assign the analysis on antibodies to diseases such as syphilis, HIV, hepatitis, rubella, parasitic infestation need three days to adhere to the dairy diet with a small addition of boiled vegetables.
5
If you have recently undergone x-ray examination, physiotherapy treatment, the study of internal organs with the use of chemicals, blood donation for the presence of antibodies is better to wait for 2-3 weeks. Inform about the procedures that you passed before, the doctor.
6
We should not forget that when infected it will take some time to immune system. Only at the end of the incubation period inherent to this disease, it is possible to obtain reliable results. So if the test detected the presence of antibodies, it does not mean that disease is not present, simply has not been enough time for its detection. Do not give up on repeated tests.
Note
Analysis of blood on hormones of a thyroid gland in norm and in pathology. Transcript analyses. Antibodies to thyroid peroxidase. Until recently, these antibodies were called antimicrosomal (AMA) as they were associated with the microsomal part of the thyrocytes. Modern research has determined that thyroid peroxidase is the primary antigenic component of microsomes.
Useful advice
Immunoassay blood test to determine the level of hormones, immunoglobulins (antibodies), immune complexes and other biologically active substances. Mainly for the IFA analysis, the studied biological material is blood, however, the study may be cerebrospinal fluid, the contents of the vitreous humor, amniotic fluid, etc.

Advice 2: How to donate blood for RH

85% of people in the blood is determined by RH factorand are RH-positive, the remaining 15% do not have it (RH-negative). RH factor is a specific protein (antigen), which is located on the surface of erythrocytes of human blood.
How to donate blood for RH
Instruction
1
A blood test for determination of RH factorand is conducted in the following cases: to detect the incompatibility of blood mother and the fetus RH factor; for determining the compatibility of transfusion in emergency situations associated with the transfusion of blood and blood components for health reasons; for prevention of RH conflict during pregnancy, women and others.
2
To determine RH factorand blood immune hematological conduct the study. RH-(positive or negative) is determined by the presence of each person has antigen D (Rh antigen) on the surface of red blood cells (erythrocytes). The study is carried out in specialized immunological laboratories. Blood group of a person does not affect the presence or absence of RH factor.
3
A blood test for the detection of specific antibodies to RH factordo not require additional special preparation of the patient for the study. 3 hours before blood sampling it is advisable to take food.
4
To conduct research on the RH factor is taken blood from a vein. Blood sampling is carried out with sterile disposable material in the treatment room of the medical institution. In the laboratory the red blood cells is mixed with serum interessnoe. Blood is positive for RH factor, if there is agglutination. In the case when agglutination occurs, the blood is RH-negative. Physician assistant during the day, you issued a conclusion on the presence or absence of RH factorin the blood.

Advice 3: How not to be afraid to donate blood from a vein

The blood test from the vein – an inevitable procedure a person has to face from time to time. To sustain this unpleasant operation adequately, try to tune it in advance. Proper advance preparation will help keep you peace of mind and physical strength.
How not to be afraid to donate blood from a vein
Instruction
1
On the eve of the analysis try to escape, do not wrap itself once again, drawing to mind the horrific details of the upcoming procedure. I'd rather walk with friends, watch movie, read your favorite book. These familiar things will help pass the time and occupy the mind much more pleasant things than the upcoming visit to the lab. If Intrusive thoughts do not let go, try to think about the potential benefits of surrendered analysis. For example, you just make sure that you are not a carrier of hepatitis or HIV. The analysis on antibodies deposited throughout the pregnancy with the likelihood of rhesus-conflict, shows that your baby is not in danger.
2
Ask someone from relatives or friends to go with you. With them you will feel much more confident, and abstract conversation will not allow your thoughts to focus solely on the upcoming analysis.
3
Choose to donate blood times when there is no long queue. Better to get up early and come to the lab 15 minutes before opening. So you can avoid the painful waiting, which will not give you courage.
4
Entering the office, smile. A positive attitude will help to cope with internal anxiety. If you feel the need to talk, feel free to do it. Speak with a nurse about anything: about how you don't like to donate blood, about the weather, about the rising price of gasoline. Do not worry that you become a chatterbox. Importantly, a lively conversation or monologue helped you to forget about the analysis. During the procedure, don't look at the tools and the process of drawing blood. Carefully examine the walls of the institution, the contents of the shelves or just turn away to the window. Don't close your eyes, it can further reinforce your fear.
5
After analyzing the sit in the clinic for a long time. Go out, a burst of fresh air will help you to overcome weakness and dizziness. Here you rejuvenate and take a break from bad thoughts much faster.

Advice 4: What are antibodies in blood

Antibodies are proteins that are synthesized by cells of the immune system. They are produced by b lymphocytes when injected into the body of substances foreign structures (antigens).
What are antibodies in blood

Why do we need the antibodies in the blood



Human health depends on the immune status of the organism. The main role in the immune system played by white blood cells (leukocytes) and antibodies, which are special proteins. They are synthesized by b lymphocytes in response to the ingestion of various foreign cells. The antibody comprises four chains: two long and heavy, two short and light. Each of these cells has a special linking element, it consists of several loops with different length and different structure of amino acids (depending on the type of antibodies). Other parts of these cells are the same (regardless of their type), it improves their interaction with other components of the immune system. Antibodies have a specificity: certain cells can only operate on specific antigens. For example, serum, introduced into the body, affects only on one disease, not acting on other diseases.

The main function of the antibody is recognizing and binding antigens, as well as the destruction of the affected cells. Antibodies can fight the antigens in several ways. First, they connect the foreign cells together so that they didn't move. After that, the antigens are absorbed by macrophages – cells capable of capturing and digesting bacteria. Second, they form "holes" in the walls of the antigens, the content "flows", and these cells die. Thirdly, they block antigens, subsequently, the immune system destroys them.
Antibodies may be protein molecules, and protein.


As detected antibodies in the blood



The presence or absence of antigens and antibodies in blood can be determined by the laboratory method, which is called "enzyme immunoassay". It can be quantitative (to determine the quantity of antigens and antibodies) and qualitative (to indicate the absence or presence of antibodies or antigens). To perform this analysis, the biological material is blood. Immunoassay method of the study also determines the level of hormones, immunological complexes and other biologically active substances. It is used in the diagnosis of immunodeficiency, viral diseases (herpes, hepatitis, cytomegalovirus), in endocrinology for detection of cancer (tumor markers).
In some cases, for the determination of antibodies in samples taken amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid.


To identify the antigen of any virus in the blood make antibodies specific to that virus. And, on the contrary, to determine in the blood of antibodies, it is necessary to provide antigens which are specific for this antibody. Information about how many of these cells must be normal, is usually given on the form for analysis results. Excess can mean the presence of any pathology. For example, it may be due to the fact that the body has been infected by any virus. After appropriate treatment the number of antibodies may be reduced and will stay at a relatively stable level.

Advice 5: How to donate blood for antibodies

Antibodies, otherwise they are called immunoglobulins, are produced by the human body when the penetration into the blood of foreign cells. They recognize and block viruses and bacteria, triggering the protective mechanism of the immune system. To change the number of antibodies of a particular class, the doctor may judge the occurrence of a new disease, or chronic activation.
How to donate blood for antibodies
You will need
  • - the direction of a physician for a blood test.
Instruction
1
Discover from the physician referral for blood test for antibodies. In it, the doctor pinpoints the group of the immunoglobulin to be examined. Indicate the direction of the nurse in the laboratory. So you're sure not confused, complex terms, and the health workers understood you correctly.
2
Change your diet for 2-3 days before testing for antibodies. Blood samples taken from the veins, because the concentration of immunoglobulins is highest in the serum. To influence the outcome of any substances entering into the blood stream from digested food.
3
Refrain from fatty, spicy, smoked, fried food. Minimize the amount of salt in the dishes. Not pripravljena food mayonnaise and vinegar. Eat more vegetables and greens. Refrain from soft drinks (coffee, tea) and juices and of course alcohol.
4
On the day of analysis you will have to starve until the end of the procedure. The blood is strictly on an empty stomach. The last meal should consist of not less than 8 hours before the study. Dine on the eve tightly. Valid only in the morning, drink pure non-carbonated water.
5
Do not take drug during the 2-3 days prior to blood sampling. Therapeutic drugs, e.g., antibiotics, actively fight pathogens in the blood. Their presence may distort the objective picture of the development of antibodies by the body. If you stop taking medicines is impossible for health reasons, notify your doctor.
6
Do not visit before the blood test physiotherapy (massage, warm up, etc.). Transfer to a later date conducting fluoroscopy, MRI, biopsy, rectal examinations, etc. Your doctor also needs to know: what antibodies have already been discovered and you did get a blood transfusion.
7
Take it easy and relax before attending the treatment room. The results of the analysis can be affected too fast walking, climbing stairs. Try to appease the excitement and discard negative thoughts.
8
Inform the nurse about the features of your body that can occur during the procedure. These include: loss of consciousness, dizziness, increase (decrease) in blood pressure, poor blood clotting, etc. back and bend your arm at the elbow and hold them tight. Don't go straight from the lab, sit in the hallway. When any painful symptoms, contact your nurse.

Advice 6: How to donate blood for hormones

To understand the causes of infertility or other hormonal disorders, it is necessary to hand over blood on hormones. It is very important to follow all doctor's recommendations and come exactly at the appointed day, since the content of hormones in blood is constantly changing. How correctly to be diagnosed, will depend largely on the effectiveness of treatment.
How to donate blood for hormones
You will need
  • - a referral from a doctor.
Instruction
1
If you are appointed to be tested for FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), come into the treatment room on 3-8 or 19-21 days of the cycle, necessarily on an empty stomach. Please note that the first day of the cycle is the first day of menstruation. Men can take a test any day, but not less than 10 hours after a meal.
2
Similarly, fasting on 3-8 or 19-21 days after the onset of menstruation take the analysis to the hormone LH (luteinizing hormone). For the doctor it is important to determine the ratio of these two hormones, it affects ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum, normally it should be from 1.5 to 2.
3
If you are assigned to take blood for prolactin, note, it needs to be done in 1 and 2 phase of the menstrual cycle to compare results. Take the test this morning, be sure to fasting before taking the blood soak for about 30 minutes (or at least sitting quietly).
4
Blood for estradiol can be delivered any day, but please note, the doctor will assess the conformity analysis data with standard values for that day of the cycle and the levels of testosterone.
5
A blood test for progesterone draw on day 19-21 of the cycle. Remember, if your cycle lasts 28 standard days, and a lot more or less, the results can differ significantly from the normative (the doctor must take it into account when assigning the day of the analysis).
6
To hand over analyses on testosteron, DHEAS sulfate, thyroxine, antibodies to TTG, don't wait for a certain day or time, you can even eat before to go to the treatment room.
7
Before you donate blood on TK free (free Triiodothyronine), lie down for at least 30 minutes to calm down. Don't forget, analysis is taken on an empty stomach.
8
To not get a distorted result, the level of the hormone TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) definitely take on an empty stomach in the morning.

Advice 7: Why is the blood on an empty stomach

Most blood tests conducted on an empty stomach. This need is due to many factors. "Fasting" means that since the last meal should take 8-12 hours.
Why is the blood on an empty stomach

What blood tests hand over on an empty stomach


Clinical analysis of blood, or blood from a finger". This analysis reflects the content of hemoglobin and the number of cellular elements of blood (erythrocytes, platelets, leukocytes). The purpose of this analysis is the diagnosis of various diseases and, above all, inflammatory processes. This is evaluated leukocyte formula, which the "hungry" man will look different than the "fed". Even a small amount of food dramatically increases the level of white blood cells that can induce the doctor to about a diagnosis and see rejection where there is none. That's why you can't eat before blood donation.


Biochemical analysis of blood, or blood from a vein. In conducting this analysis revealed levels of blood fats, cholesterol, sugars, proteins, and their decay products. This analysis shows the "quality" of the internal organs, describes the secretory and excretory functions of the kidneys, liver, pancreas. When the disease it allows to establish an accurate diagnosis, especially in controversial cases. Biochemical analysis of blood hand over on an empty stomach. Indicators of glucose, cholesterol, bilirubin in the blood is directly dependent on the income of the food. If it is eating, they will be inflated. Before testing you can't even drink water and chew gum.


Blood sugar or diabetes test. This analysis shows the level of sugar in the blood, which gives an indication of the presence of diabetes or the propensity to it. Blood shall be on an empty stomach, then the person is asked to drink a glass of sweet water, and an hour later blood taken again. The difference in performance can be judged on the glucose uptake and the pancreas.


A blood test for hormones. This analysis should be conducted in the morning as during the day, hormone levels will change. It is very important to donate blood on an empty stomach, because food intake may increase the level of certain hormones.


A blood test for antibodies to various diseases (serology). For the detection of various infectious diseases. Before blood delivery it is necessary to refrain from eating for at least 6 hours. Because food can affect the properties of blood plasma, increasing its viscosity, the correct execution of the analysis difficult.


How to prepare for the blood test


In many laboratories, the norms are calculated for indicators that are characteristic only for the morning hours. During the day, these figures are subject to fluctuations, so to give blood at another time makes no sense.

The day before analysis to avoid physical stress, nervous overwork, excesses in eating, drinking. Medications need to inform the technician.

For 8-12 hours before analysis can not eat or drink any beverage except water. Re-take tests better in the same laboratory.
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