The study of sputum in the laboratory allows to determine the presence of pathogenic microorganisms causing a particular disease, cells of malignant tumors, impurities (pus, blood), specific for various diseases, and to determine the bacterial resistance to antibiotic drugs.
In a healthy person, mucus is not produced. She is a pathological discharge from the respiratory tract by coughing, indicating the presence of any disease. Sputum is prescribed to patients suffering from prolonged cough, bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, lung abscess, and other pathologies.
The sputum must be prepared. It is better highlighted when on the eve of a gathering to take expectorants and drinking lots of warm fluids. If the sputum does not depart, you need some time to take a deep breath and exhale. You can also do an inhalation over the soda solution.
Before sputum collection needs to brush her teeth and rinse your mouth with boiled water. It is better to carry out this procedure in the morning because during the night the phlegm accumulates and falls. For General analysis of sputum suitable clean, dry jar with a lid. For bacteriological analysis requires a sterile container, which is issued in the lab.
In order to conduct research, you will need at least 3-5 ml of sputum. It should be collected before eating and must be delivered to laboratory within 2 hours after collection. Before sending the sputum to the study, it must be stored in the refrigerator.
In uncomplicated cough, and not severe forms of bronchitis, asthma, mucus colorless. Phlegm yellow and green color indicates the presence in it of pus, and lobar pneumonia it rusty-brown. In the analysis of sputum are examined not only its chemical and physical properties, but the bacteriological characteristics and the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics.
What does the sputum? Laboratory examination of sputum allows to identify pathogens (including Mycobacterium tuberculosis), malignant tumor cells, impurities (blood, pus, etc.) specific to certain diseases, and to determine the sensitivity of bacterial flora to antibiotics.
Sputum analysis gives the doctor information about the stage, the nature and the localization process in the lungs, allows to make a differential diagnosis among the various diseases of the respiratory tract. In some cases the sputum is assigned to search for cancerous cells (cytologic analysis of sputum) or bacteria tuberculosis (sputum analysis for VC).
Advice 2: What tests need to pass for tuberculosis
Methods of TB diagnosis is quite extensive. To make a correct diagnosis, the patient is administered a comprehensive survey, the results of which will help to detect the disease at its earliest stages.
If you suspect TB in the first place recommended to pass fluorographic research. But this is not the only method that will require that the TB doctor was able to make the correct diagnosis.
A blood test for tuberculosis allows to determine the activity of the process occurring in the lungs. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is elevated and is in the range from 40 to 80 mm/h For the recovery of the patient, the ESR is reduced.
Immunoassay blood test helps detect the presence of antibodies to mycobacteria. And serological research methods are based on detection of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) or antibodies specific for mycobacterial antigens. Unfortunately, such methods do not give the physician grounds for an accurate diagnosis and apply only in those regions where the activity of tuberculosis is relatively low.
Based on the recommendations of the world health organization for suspected tuberculosis required to conduct microscopic sputum smear staining by the method of Ziehl-Nielsen. If smears of 5 or more mycobacteria tuberculosis is confirmed.
After separation of the culture professionals is no less important is the task of determining susceptibility to antibacterial drugs. This helps to prescribe effective treatment and prevent the threshold resistance of mycobacteria.
In addition, for the diagnosis of tuberculosis patient is prescribed fluoroscopy, radiography, tomography. Fluoroscopy is used for an indicative survey. While radiography is considered a very important examination, which exactly displays of pathological processes in lungs. Imaging is needed only for clarification and exploration of the details and boundaries of the lesions of the lungs.
Tuberculin (Mantoux) is massively in children and adolescents, in order to timely detect and prevent the spread of tuberculosis. The main criterion – the size of the papules. With negative reaction the diameter of the papules is not increased. If the child is infected with the mycobacteria, the pool increases by more than 5 mm. Such a child needs a detailed examination.