Advice 1: How can I make the analysis on antibodies of polio

Antibodies to the polio virus provide protection from this disease. The presence of immunity may confirm special blood test.
How can I make the analysis on antibodies of polio
Polio - an acute viral disease that can cause death or severe lesions of the Central nervous system. Mass vaccination has achieved significant success in the fight against this disease. However, polio still remains endemic to several countries in Africa and Asia. Outbreaks of the disease recorded in recent years and in the border States.

Immunity to poliomyelitis

The presence of immunity against poliomyelitis reduces the probability of getting sick to a minimum. Vaccination and revaccination allow to form such a body's resistance to infection. However, even if all the events were held, over time, the immune protection of the organism may be weakened. Persistent immunity is produced in individuals who have had the disease or vaccinated with a live vaccine.

To find out whether a person has antibodies to the virus of poliomyelitis, conducted the serological analysis of blood. This study allows to determine the risk of infection when faced with the virus. Typically, the antibody pass before you travel to regions where there were cases of polio.

Where it is possible to make the analysis on antibodies

Analysis for antibodies to the polio virus occurs in government and commercial laboratories. The study is not too in demand, therefore, is not available in all medical centers. To find out where in your town can do the analysis, consult with the local doctor or specialist of sanitary-epidemiological station.

In public institutions this research is carried out when indicated. Direction for a free analysis can give infectious disease in the district hospital. In centers paid the cost of detection of antibodies to polio varies from 1000 to 3000 rubles.

How to get tested for polio antibodies

For qualitative and quantitative determination of antibodies to the polio virus using ELISA method. Antibodies detected in serum or plasma. The result ranges from 0 to 150 U/ml. If the titer greater than 12 U/ml, it is possible to speak about presence of immunity to infection.

To study it is better to come in the morning before the first meal. The patient take blood from a vein. It is believed that it is sufficient for the diagnosis of 0.5-1 ml of blood. Pay analysis is done within 1-2 business days, free - for two weeks.

Advice 2: What are antibodies in blood

Antibodies are proteins that are synthesized by cells of the immune system. They are produced by b lymphocytes when injected into the body of substances foreign structures (antigens).
What are antibodies in blood

Why do we need the antibodies in the blood

Human health depends on the immune status of the organism. The main role in the immune system played by white blood cells (leukocytes) and antibodies, which are special proteins. They are synthesized by b lymphocytes in response to the ingestion of various foreign cells. The antibody comprises four chains: two long and heavy, two short and light. Each of these cells has a special linking element, it consists of several loops with different length and different structure of amino acids (depending on the type of antibodies). Other parts of these cells are the same (regardless of their type), it improves their interaction with other components of the immune system. Antibodies have a specificity: certain cells can only operate on specific antigens. For example, serum, introduced into the body, affects only on one disease, not acting on other diseases.

The main function of the antibody is recognizing and binding antigens, as well as the destruction of the affected cells. Antibodies can fight the antigens in several ways. First, they connect the foreign cells together so that they didn't move. After that, the antigens are absorbed by macrophages – cells capable of capturing and digesting bacteria. Second, they form "holes" in the walls of the antigens, the content "flows", and these cells die. Thirdly, they block antigens, subsequently, the immune system destroys them.
Antibodies may be protein molecules, and protein.

As detected antibodies in the blood

The presence or absence of antigens and antibodies in blood can be determined by the laboratory method, which is called "enzyme immunoassay". It can be quantitative (to determine the quantity of antigens and antibodies) and qualitative (to indicate the absence or presence of antibodies or antigens). To perform this analysis, the biological material is blood. Immunoassay method of the study also determines the level of hormones, immunological complexes and other biologically active substances. It is used in the diagnosis of immunodeficiency, viral diseases (herpes, hepatitis, cytomegalovirus), in endocrinology for detection of cancer (tumor markers).
In some cases, for the determination of antibodies in samples taken amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid.

To identify the antigen of any virus in the blood make antibodies specific to that virus. And, on the contrary, to determine in the blood of antibodies, it is necessary to provide antigens which are specific for this antibody. Information about how many of these cells must be normal, is usually given on the form for analysis results. Excess can mean the presence of any pathology. For example, it may be due to the fact that the body has been infected by any virus. After appropriate treatment the number of antibodies may be reduced and will stay at a relatively stable level.

Advice 3: As vaccinated against polio

Poliomyelitis is an acute infectious disease that affects the Central nervous system, leads to the development of meningitis or paralysis of the patient. Most infected children 3 months to 5 years, so at this age it is crucial to be vaccinated against polio. In older age the susceptibility to the virus decreases, and in the case of infection disease is often virtually asymptomatic.
Vaccination against polio

Polio vaccine

The polio vaccine contains immunogenic components and all three types of virus that cause the disease.

There are two types of vaccine: oral (taken by mouth in the form of drops) and inactivated (subcutaneous injection). The oral vaccine carries a live virus Sabin and Chumakov and risk 1 to 2500000 can lead to infection with polio. The inactivated Salk vaccine does not cause disease, because it contains formalin killed virus. It is believed that the oral type, though it has certain risks, but more efficient, so this vaccine is used more often, but only on children older than six years.

Can be used with monovalent and trivalent vaccines. The first option is used during the polio epidemic, and another for routine vaccination.

Currently, hospitals have to offer to vaccinate these vaccines as "Pentax", "Imovax polio", "Infanrix Hexa", "Tetrakis", "Polyrex", "oral polio Vaccine", etc. they differ in manufacturer and price, as well as composition. Some of the vaccines used for prevention of several diseases, therefore before their introduction please consult your physician, stating the name of the vaccinations that you or your child have entered.

The vaccination schedule against polio

In most countries vaccination of children against polio begins in 3 months. Only a child is 6 vaccinations. The first three are made with an interval of 30-45 days. In addition, for the first two is used inactivated vaccine, and a third alive, i.e. oral. The next three are called are already a booster. They are oral and are taken at the age of 18 and 20 months and 14 years.

This calendar is tentative and is suitable for most children. In some cases (disease, weak immunity, allergic reaction, inability to put a shot in time) the time of administration of the vaccine is discussed individually with a physician. Importantly, the vaccination was produced to 18 years. If this does not succeed, then after 18 years, a person is instilled only in case of detection of wild poliovirus in the region of residence. Also be sure to additionally vaccinated persons whose work is connected with polio or people infected with them, as well as those who visit the country with the polio epidemic.

Contraindications and preparing for vaccination

Vaccination is postponed or canceled:

- if the child was born prematurely or has a weak immune system;
- if you have an Allergy to polymyxin b, neomycin or streptomycin;
- if you have a severe Allergy to the vaccine against poliomyelitis;
- in case of severe illness.

Before inoculation, the child passes the General analysis of urine and blood, and also passes the examination, the pediatrician to identify possible diseases. Vaccination is only for healthy children. Otherwise, either will not develop immunity or complications.

If the child is allergic, in some cases, doctors can recommend to prepare his body for grafting by means of special antihistamines. It is worth doing only as directed by your pediatrician.

If the child still did not put oral vaccine, it is better not to have contact with people who have recently received it. In such a situation there is a risk of Contracting polio.

Oral vaccine is not put HIV-infected children and children in whose immediate environment there are people with HIV.
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