For the treatment of various diseases recommended by different duration and course doses of nicotinic acid. So in the treatment of pellagra (a disease of metabolism resulting from a lack of vitamin PP) prescribe the maximum rate of this drug. In pellagra intravenous-drip 2-4 ml of nicotinic acid, dissolved in 200 ml of isotonic solution. I.e., 200 ml bottle with 0.9% sodium chloride solution type doctor's prescription from 2 to 4 ml of nicotine and connect the patient with the IV induced solution. In severe cases I. V. nicotinic acid is put on twice a day – morning and evening. Treatment on prescription is 10-20 days.
Liver diseases and pathology of the gastrointestinal tract (peptic ulcer, gastritis of different etiology) nicotinic acid administered 0.5-1 ml subcutaneously or intramuscularly. For intramuscular administration of the drug to adults people need to use the needle that comes in the kit with a syringe volume of 5 ml And needle, which comes complete with a 2 ml syringe, is more suitable for intradermal injection of the solution. The course of treatment according to doctors ' recommendations is 7-10 days. Under these diseases, it is desirable to repeat the treatment nicotinic acid 2 times a year, prior to the period of seasonal exacerbations, i.e. in September and March.
To improve metabolic processes in the organism in mild forms of diabetes, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, and to reduce spasms of peripheral vascular occlusive disease, migraine, Raynaud's disease, etc., injections of a solution of nicotinic acid it is recommended to inject intramuscularly according to a certain scheme. Start with small doses – 1 ml, then adjusted to a maximum single dose of injection of 5 ml, then the dose is reduced. Thus, in the first day of treatment is necessary to introduce 1 ml of vitamin B3, the second 2 ml, the third – 3 ml, in fourth – 4 ml, on the fifth day you enter a maximum dose of 5 ml, and of the sixth day begin to reduce the dose, i.e. on the sixth day – 4 ml, in the seventh – 3ml, eighth – 2 ml, in the ninth day of treatment you inject 1 ml of nicotinic acid.
Always keep in mind that nicotinic acid is a vitamin, so to perform the injection with her solution is better after a meal, because the acid binds with other nutrients and shifts in the compound nicotinamide, which is very valuable for the body, as involved in lipid metabolism and normalizes the level of cholesterol in the blood. Like many vitamins, nicotine causes pain when parenteral her administration. If you own a technique of intramuscular injection and will inject vitamin PP by yourself, try to inject the drug very slowly to reduce the painful feeling from the injection.
Advice 2: How to inject vitamins
Some vitamins (especially b vitamins) is quite poorly absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, there are cases when the doctor recommends vitamins intramuscularly – in other words, injections. But how to inject vitamins?
You will need
- Disposable syringe for intramuscular injection
- Alcohol wipes or sterile cotton wool and alcohol (Cologne)
- Vitamins in capsules
Before pricking the vitamins, consult a doctor. Do not put a diagnosis and prescribe treatment independently. After all, "normal", natural way of intake of vitamins is food, and vitamin injections are an extreme measure. While intramuscular injections of vitamins you can do for yourself is quite simple.
Most often, the injections are in the thigh – the upper outer quarter. If you prick the vitamins yourself – you can put a needle in the outer thigh (upper third).
Before you make an injection, be sure to wash your hands with soap and water. Open the syringe and vial with a solution of vitamin. Then remove the syringe needle plastic safety cap and pull the plunger, let the syringe a little air. Now you can dial into the syringe the drug. Once the vial is empty, turn the full syringe the needle up and gently tap it with a fingernail, small air bubbles are gathered into one big air bubble at the top of the syringe. Then slowly push the plunger up until all air comes out, and the tip of the needle does not appear a drop of the drug.
Wipe the injection site with a sterile alcohol pad (can be purchased at the pharmacy). Instead of napkins, you can use a sterile cotton wool moistened with alcohol or Cologne. Then the left hand slightly stretch the skin at the site chosen for the injection, and right quickly insert the needle approximately at half the length. By pushing the plunger slowly, enter vitamin.
Again wipe the injection site with an alcohol pad or cotton wool to quickly remove the needle and press a cotton swab to the injection site for a minute or two. If you hit a blood vessel and the puncture site was made by a drop of blood – keep the fleece until then, until the bleeding stops.
If you are prescribed several courses of injections of vitamins – clearly follow the doctor's recommendations, do not have the initiative, do not mix drugs in the "vitamin cocktail" and do not do injections in the same needle". Many vitamins (especially b group) which are not compatible with each other and can cause allergic reactions, so their shots are alternated: for example, today you make an injection of vitamin B1, tomorrow – B12, and to combine these two events into one day is impossible.
Advice 3: How to chop subcutaneous injection
Subcutaneous injections are made when the immediate effect of the drugs is not required. And at the same time, these injections start to act faster than drinking a pill. The fact that in the subcutaneous fat layer, and where the injection is done, many blood vessels, so the drug injected thus, well absorbed into the blood. Usually subcutaneously are vaccinated and are hormones, such as insulin or growth hormone.
You will need
- a syringe with a volume of 1 ml;
- - a cotton ball or disc;
- - alcohol.
Wash your hands and wipe them with a cotton swab dipped in alcohol.
Select the site for injection. For subcutaneous injections are preferred buttocks, thighs, upper arms and stomach area. Take a shot at a distance of not less than three inches from the previous injection. Failure to do so may lead to scar or thickening of the skin.
Lubricate the injection site with a cotton pad abundantly dampened with alcohol. First, treat large area of skin around the site of injection, then the place of injection.
Make the left hand a fold of skin in the shape of a triangle. In the right hand take the syringe. If you are left handed, do the opposite. The syringe should be in dominant hand, so that it's accurate.
Insert the needle at 2/3 of the length at an angle of 45 degrees to the base of the skin fold.
Put the medicine slowly by pushing the plunger of the syringe with your thumb.
Remove the needle from the skin and press the injection site with a cotton disk soaked in alcohol. Removing wool from the skin, with circular movements massage gently places the shot.
Discard the syringe in the trash, after putting on the needle cap.
Watch carefully so that when you dial the medication into the syringe did not get an air bubble. If it still happens, do not inject it under the skin. Leave the air bubble with a small amount of medication in the syringe.
Advice 4: How to crack injections subcutaneously
Of course, better when the shots makes a qualified specialist, such as a nurse. However, in a life often there are situations when it is necessary to make a subcutaneous injection by yourself. For this you need to adhere to certain rules of administration of drugs subcutaneously.
Prepare tools. The hypodermic needle is suitable for small (up to 2 ml), thin, short needle of the smallest diameter.
Fill the syringe the drug from the ampoule or vial. Some drugs are available immediately in the syringe.
Determine the place where you will inject the drug. For subcutaneous injections the most suitable the outer part of the shoulder to the shoulder blade, outer thigh and the stomach. In these places the minimum danger to get into a blood vessel or hit a nerve.
It is impossible to do a subcutaneous injection in a location where there is swelling or there were seals from previous injections.
Wash your hands (can even handle their alcohol) or wear gloves.
The injection site carefully apply rubbing alcohol. First, the area is more, then the place of injection. It is desirable to use two different cotton ball with alcohol. Another cotton swab with alcohol take in the left hand (it will be useful for the treatment of the skin after injection).
Take a syringe (the second finger holds the needle cannula, the fifth plunger of the syringe, the third and fourth fingers supporting the syringe from below and the thumb above).
Left hand pull the skin to form a crease in the shape of a triangle (apex down).
Release the air from the syringe (if available) before the first drops of the drug.
At the base of the skin fold insert the needle at a sharp angle about two-thirds of its length. Some drugs are injected deeper under the skin, this is usually indicated in the instructions to the drug. Then the needle should enter fully.
Left hand push down the piston (the syringe from right-handed to left shift), and slowly inject the medication.
Carefully remove the needle and hold it over the base.
The injection site is press alcohol-saturated cotton ball.
You can make a small massage place of injection, without removing the wool.
Advice 5: Where to inject intramuscularly
Often doctors prescribe patients the medication intramuscularly, even if they don't go to the hospital. It is rare to find neighbor-a nurse who agrees to set shots, while private services are costly, especially a visit to the house. It is therefore useful to be able to put the intramuscular injections as other people, and myself.
You will need
- - the vial of medication;
- a syringe of the appropriate volume;
- - cotton pads or balls;
- - alcohol for injection.
Open the vial. If it is marked by a white dot, just click on it, the pad of the thumb and slight movement to break off the tip. If the point is not - would first have to cut the glass with a scarifier, which manufacturers put on the package of vials. If he lost - will help ordinary nail file. Thereafter, in the same movement gently break off top of ampoule.
Open the package of the syringe. Put the needle on the syringe and carefully, without touching the metal with your fingers, not remove the protective cap. Pull the plunger of the syringe to let some air in, and then dial in his medication from the vials.
Turn the syringe needle up and tap it with your finger to let the air bubbles are gathered into one large surface. Push down on the piston, pushing air through the needle. With a small amount of medication will spill out of the needle.
Determine the injection site. If you put a shot to another person, mentally divide the buttock into four equal shares. To enter, the needle should be in the upper outer part. If you put the shot itself - the injection site is the upper third of the outer side of the thigh.
Wipe the injection site with alcohol. Sharp and confident movement insert the needle into the muscle (to do this, it is necessary to relax). Optimal depth of insertion - if from the base of the needle to the skin about 1 cm and full introduction is not scary.
Slowly push the plunger of the syringe to begin the infusion of medication. The longer and ravnomernoe it goes into the muscle more easily absorbed. So, the patient experiences less pain and avoid the risk of lumps at the injection site.
When fully administered the drug, take an alcohol-moistened cotton wool and apply to the puncture site. Short movement, remove the needle from the muscle and massage the skin with a cotton swab. If you start to form a lump - apply iodine mesh or tie for a few hours of pure cabbage leaf.
Be sure to use only disposable syringes. If the shot touched the needle with your hands or dropped on the floor - replace it with a new sterile.
Change the injection site if you need to undergo treatment. One day put in the right buttock (thigh), the other to the left.