The polio vaccine contains immunogenic components and all three types of virus that cause the disease.
There are two types of vaccine: oral (taken by mouth in the form of drops) and inactivated (subcutaneous injection). The oral vaccine carries a live virus Sabin and Chumakov and risk 1 to 2500000 can lead to infection with polio. The inactivated Salk vaccine does not cause disease, because it contains formalin killed virus. It is believed that the oral type, though it has certain risks, but more efficient, so this vaccine is used more often, but only on children older than six years.
Can be used with monovalent and trivalent vaccines. The first option is used during the polio epidemic, and another for routine vaccination.
Currently, hospitals have to offer to vaccinate these vaccines as "Pentax", "Imovax polio", "Infanrix Hexa", "Tetrakis", "Polyrex", "oral polio Vaccine", etc. they differ in manufacturer and price, as well as composition. Some of the vaccines used for prevention of several diseases, therefore before their introduction please consult your physician, stating the name of the vaccinations that you or your child have entered.
The vaccination schedule against polio
In most countries vaccination of children against polio begins in 3 months. Only a child is 6 vaccinations. The first three are made with an interval of 30-45 days. In addition, for the first two is used inactivated vaccine, and a third alive, i.e. oral. The next three are called are already a booster. They are oral and are taken at the age of 18 and 20 months and 14 years.
This calendar is tentative and is suitable for most children. In some cases (disease, weak immunity, allergic reaction, inability to put a shot in time) the time of administration of the vaccine is discussed individually with a physician. Importantly, the vaccination was produced to 18 years. If this does not succeed, then after 18 years, a person is instilled only in case of detection of wild poliovirus in the region of residence. Also be sure to additionally vaccinated persons whose work is connected with polio or people infected with them, as well as those who visit the country with the polio epidemic.
Contraindications and preparing for vaccination
Vaccination is postponed or canceled:
- if the child was born prematurely or has a weak immune system;
- if you have an Allergy to polymyxin b, neomycin or streptomycin;
- if you have a severe Allergy to the vaccine against poliomyelitis;
- in case of severe illness.
Before inoculation, the child passes the General analysis of urine and blood, and also passes the examination, the pediatrician to identify possible diseases. Vaccination is only for healthy children. Otherwise, either will not develop immunity or complications.
If the child is allergic, in some cases, doctors can recommend to prepare his body for grafting by means of special antihistamines. It is worth doing only as directed by your pediatrician.
If the child still did not put oral vaccine, it is better not to have contact with people who have recently received it. In such a situation there is a risk of Contracting polio.
Oral vaccine is not put HIV-infected children and children in whose immediate environment there are people with HIV.