Inoculations against polio
The main role in the fight against polio belongs to the vaccination. There are two types of vaccines: inactivated (IPV) and oral (OPV). An oral vaccine composed of three main virus strains used for routine immunization. It creates a stable immunity against polio. In Russia oral polio vaccines make children 3 months of age, a repeat vaccination is conducted at 4.5 and 6 months and revaccination is carried out at 18, 20 months. 14 is a third booster vaccination. Oral polio vaccine is as follows: a few drops of the drug buried in the mouth and on the tongue.
After vaccination with OPV is not recommended to eat and drink within the hour.
Vaccine IPV - inactivated, it does not lead to contamination of polio. IPV is given intramuscularly or subcutaneously. The effectiveness of inactivated vaccines inferior to the oral, because it cannot in the same degree contribute to the development of protective mechanisms in the gut and the nasopharynx and can not provide absolute protection against disease. IPV vaccination is carried out twice with an interval of two months. Revaccination is carried out through the year, and second revaccination in 5 years.
Possible risks and contraindications of vaccination.
Oral vaccination against polio can cause diarrhea or an allergic reaction. A more dangerous complication – vaccine-associated poliomyelitis. Thus the child having the same symptoms as when infected from another person. IPV does not lead to contamination of polio, however, may cause a slight rise of temperature, moderate malaise and fatigue, loss of appetite.
Before vaccination it is recommended to check the immune status of the child.
Vaccination against polio in any form is contraindicated in case of allergies to the antibiotics streptomycin, neomycin or kanamycin is a strong negative reaction to previous vaccination. Both vaccinations (and in drops and intramuscular injection) is contraindicated in pregnant women.
OPV vaccine is not put in the case of immune deficiency or in contact with a person with immunodeficiency, instead use IPV. OPV vaccine is also contraindicated with the appearance of neurological complications due to the introduction of previous vaccines, the presence of malignant diseases, including Oncology, acute conditions accompanied by systemic illness or fever.
In the United States more than a decade ago refused to oral vaccination because of the fact that in 1979 were registered 144 cases of polio after vaccination with live strains. American physicians have considered such risks unnecessary, and began to use IPV.