All endocrine glands are divided into dependent from the anterior pituitary and independent. To the independent attribute of the parathyroid gland, pineal gland, pancreatic islets, adrenal medulla.
To get addicted to the pituitary include the thyroid gland, cortex of adrenal, sexual glands. They aktiviziruyutsya under the influence of the tropic hormone. Hormones data glands in turn produce feedback effects, inhibiting the synthesis of tropic hormone.
Hormones the parathyroid glands monitor the calcium and phosphorus in the blood. This way is the influence on the excitability of the nervous and muscular systems. The hormone also increases the absorption of calcium, subject to due receipt of vitamin D.
The cells of the pineal gland to synthesize melatonin, serotonin and a variety of polypeptides with hormonal activity. Production of serotonin is a day, melatonin at night. The pineal gland exerts a hormonal effect on the function of sexual glands, increases the concentration of potassium ions in the blood.
Pancreatic islets represent the endocrine part of the pancreas. Cells in this area produce insulin, glucagon and somatostatin. Insulin converts glucose to glycogen, enhances carbohydrate metabolism in the muscles. Glucagon also regulates the level of glucose in the blood.
Cells of the adrenal medulla synthesize the hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline. Norepinephrine stimulates contraction of all vessels, except vessels of the brain. Vessels in the skin constrict under the influence of adrenaline, under it also relaxes the coronary vessels and vessels of skeletal muscles.
Thyroid hormones – thyroid-stimulating hormones. They activate metabolic processes in the body. As a result, increases the activity of brain activities, increases the number of mitochondria in cells. The mitochondria are a kind of energy stations of the cell.
Also, the thyroid gland synthesizes the hormone calcitonin, which causes a decrease in the concentration of calcium ions in the blood. This occurs through the effect of calcitonin on bone cells. Calcitonin is produced by the particular rudimentary cells of the thyroid gland.
The endocrine part of the testis produce the male sex hormone testosterone. Adequate amount of this hormone stimulates spermatogenesis and a number of other processes in the male body. They determine the sexual behavior of men.
The endocrine part of the ovary produces estrogen, luteola, progesterone. Estrogens play a leading role in the development of the body of the female type. Progesterone affects the uterine lining.