Advice 1: How many vowels and consonants in the Russian language

In the Russian language 33 letters and sounds on a dozen more. Different vowels and consonants. Only 6 vowels, whereas consonant sounds 37. Among consonants are distinguished sonorous and deaf, hard and soft.
Russian alphabet
If the number of letters in the Russian language, everything is clear – their 33 – that number sounds a bit more complicated. Although it would seem that such a complex? To take and count.

Of course, you can count. And in fact, the number of sounds of the Russian language is known. But from time to time, people question not only about how many sounds, but the separation of concepts such as sound and letter.

The Russian alphabet consists of 33 letters, 10 of them are vowels and 21 are consonants and two letter any sounds not signify they need for auxiliary purposes. This is a soft sign "b" and the hard sign "b".

Vowel sounds and vowel letters

As mentioned above, vowels ten. But the vowel sounds in the Russian language. "How so?" I wonder people who have completely forgotten what you were taught in elementary school. This is forgivable, however, in professional activities not necessary to carry out sound analysis.

Yes, the vowel sounds in the Russian language in all six [a], [o], [y], [e], [s], [and]. On the letter these sounds are indicated by the corresponding letters according to spelling.
Sorry, sometimes called sounds of the letters - vowels iodirovannoye. This is a mistake. The vowels "I", "e", "e", "Yu" in the words designate or the softness of the preceding consonant ("med"), or at once two sounds ("Yula" [Yula], lighthouse [Mayak].

Of course, if we look wider, we can see that, for example, the sound [a] is not the same in different parts of the word. The accent is to pronounce it as clearly as possible, but as far as his position on impact, so it is less clear. In linguistics this is called reduction or reducing.

When sound analysis of words, when writing transcriptions for stressed and unstressed sounds are used with different badges. But within the framework of a school course enough to know that vowels in the Russian language.

Consonant sounds and consonant letters

With consonants sounds and letters is somewhat easier. Although also has its own characteristics.

Letters, as already mentioned, 21. And consonant sounds – 37. In the Russian language consonant sounds vary in hardness-softness and voicing is voiced or voiceless.

Most consonant sounds are paired hardness-softness. It is [[b] - [b']; [V] - [V']; [g] - [g']; [d] - [d']; [z] - [z']; [K] - [K']; [l] - [l']; [m] - [m']; [n] to [n']; [p] - [p']; [R] - [R']; [s] - [s']; [t] - [t']; [f] - [f']; [x] - [x']. Only 15 pairs. The other consonants are either always hard pronunciation ([W], [W], [C]), or soft (['th'], [h'], [u']). Total turns 36 consonants. Osobitsu is the 37th consonant [f’:].
The consonant [W’:] – soft, long. It is used much less often than other consonants. It is found in such words as "reins", "yeast", and the pronunciation of the word "rain": [Doge':]

For voicing-voiced or voiceless most of the consonants are paired. Such pairs 11. Always ringing, respectively, unpaired: [’th'], [l], [l’], [m], [m], [n], [n’], [R], [R’], [W’:]. Always blind: [x], [x’], [TS], [h’], [u’].

Total in the Russian language, 37 consonants, and 6 vowels. A total of 43 sound.


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Advice 2: How many words in the Russian language

The number of words in Russian and any other language count is difficult because this value is not constant. Some words become obsolete and are forgotten, while simultaneously arise and take its place in the language new words.
How many words in the Russian language
Due to difficulties with the definition and method of counting the exact number of words in the Russian language remains open. This theme is constantly discussed, not only within academia, but also outside of it in the pages of mass periodicals, on television and in the Internet space. Calling the number of words in a particular language, traditionally refer to any sufficient authority dictionary. For the Russian language in this edition is "the Great academic dictionary of the Russian language".
New "the Great academic dictionary" has been published since 2004. At the moment, has already published 22 volumes of the 33 planned. The dictionary has a stated capacity of 150 thousand words, but it is expected that this number will be significantly exceeded. It should be noted that the contents of the new "the Great academic dictionary of the Russian language" will not be a full reflection of the quantitative structure of the lexical units of the Russian literary language of the early twenty-first century.
According to lexicographical tradition, only well-established education included in the academic dictionary. In addition, many compound words are not considered independent entries and therefore excluded from the total count of the number of lexical units. Don't go in there and separate sections of the dialects, and highly specialized professional words and specific scientific terms. Also remains uncommitted considerable part of slang and dialectal vocabulary.
Vladimir Ivanovich Dal in the mid-nineteenth created the "Explanatory dictionary of the living great Russian language", which consists of approximately 200 thousand dictionary entries. However, many of the words in this dictionary are the dialect and in the modern Russian language no longer used. In addition, Dal consciously tried to avoid inclusion in the lexical borrowings from other languages. For 160 years, the Russian language borrowed a great number of foreign words, whose presence in language cannot be ignored. For these reasons, the number of words presented in the "Explanatory dictionary of the living great Russian language" cannot be considered true for the modern Russian language.
"Russian spelling dictionary" under the editorship of V. V. Lopatin, and O. E. Ivanova is the largest spelling dictionary of the Russian language. It contains about 200 thousand lexical units. Some linguists believe that the Russian language contains 500 or even 600 thousand words.
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