You will need
  • - notebook;
  • - handle.
Enclose the transcribed word or phrase in square brackets. During the transcription of the text to signify a short pause, use one vertical stroke, at the end of phrases and during long pauses the two vertical lines. In words with more than one syllable, put an accent.
To indicate vowel sounds use letters [a], [], [], [], [e], [s]. Often the question arises how to make the transcription of words with unstressed sound [o]. Make a note in the transcription of unstressed "o" sound [a], for example, beard [brad a].
The letters e, e, u, I indicate in the transcription as [e], [o], [moron.], [ja], if they stand at the beginning of words, after a soft or hard token or after a vowel as in the word anchor [j Akar’]. Remember that the consonants before these vowels are softened, and before a vowel sound [and]. The sound [j] disappears - transcription of the word "gloss" looks like this: [GL"an ETS]. To indicate the softness of consonants use the apostrophe, which write to the right of the soft letters.
Consider the fact that consonants in words can sonatica or opasatica, depending on the following sound, for example, tub – [K Atka], but kit – [CAD abalone]. Remember that always voiced consonants become voiceless at the end of words, so the words mushroom and tooth latest sound write as [p].
A long consonant mark a horizontal line over a letter or a colon ([K a a], [K AC:a]). The letter u in the transcription indicate: [W‘:].
If a preposition, a particle or Union pronounce with the wordm together, and to indicate the phonetic transcription of the word as a whole: under the mountain [padg Ouro], school [ICSC Ola].
The ability to do and understand the transcription may be useful to you when reading encyclopedias and dictionaries, especially if you have doubts about the correct pronunciation of Russian words.