Compare the consonants and vowels sounds. Unlike vowels, in the pronunciation of consonants created an obstacle the tongue or lips. For vowel sounds, on the contrary, the "path" is open, they are easy to sing and "pull". In the Russian language there are 36 consonants, including [th].
Distinguish hard and soft consonant sounds. That is, some consonants are pronounced firmly, and the other gently depending on the position of the tongue. Soft consonants are formed by raising the middle of the tongue to the hard palate. In the transcription they are indicated by an apostrophe at the top (for example, [l’] [C’]).
Remember the hard and soft consonants pairs. In the Russian language the solid sound meets soft: [b]-[b’], [V]-[V’], [g]-[g’], [d]-[d], [z]-[z’], [K]-[K’], [l]-[l’], [m]-[m], [n] to[n’], [p]-[p’], [R]-[R’], [C]-[C’], [t]-[t’], [f]-[f’], [x]-[x’]. Some consonants do not form pairs. Always considered a solid sounds [f], [TS], [sh] and soft – [th], [CH’] [u’].
Define sonorous and deaf consonants. All consonant sounds are pronounced with noise. If noise is added to the tone, the voice, the consonant is voiced. If only noise is present, it is a voiceless consonant.
Distinguish between pairs of voiced and unvoiced consonants. Voiced and deaf consonant sounds in the Russian language are also paired and unpaired. The voiced sound [b] is paired with the deaf [p], [b]-[p’], [V]-[f], [V]-[f’], [g]-[K], [g]-[K’], [d]-[t], [d]-[t’], [z]-[s], [z]-[C’], [Zh]-[sh]. No steam in voiced consonants [d], [l], [l’], [m], [m], [n], [n’], [R], [R’] and deaf [x], [x’], [TS], [h’], [u’].
Find out other types of consonant sounds in the Russian language. There is also a hissing consonant – [W] [h] [W] [y]. The method of formation are fricative (or slotted) consonants – [V], [V’], [W], [z], [z’], [th], [s], [C’], [f], [f’], [x], [x’], [W]; occlusive - [b], [b’], [g], [g’], [d], [d’], [K], [K’], [p], [p’], [t], [t’]; trembling (vibrancy) – [R], [R’]. Place of education: Guben-labial consonants – [b], [b’], [m], [m], [p], [p’]; labiodental-dental – [V], [V’], [f], [f’]; lingual: anterior-lingual - [z], [z’], [d], [d], [l] [l’], [n], [n’], [C] [C’], [t], [t’], [TS], peredvizenie - [W], [R], [R’], [h], [ø], sredneetazhnye - [g’], [’], [y], [x], sanaatana - [g], [K], [Kh].