Advice 1: What is the proper name

The names of nouns in the Russian language are of two types: name and own name a household word. These two nouns are opposed to each other. But they can switch roles.
What is the proper name
The proper name is the name of the noun, expressed by a word or phrase naming the specific object or phenomenon. Unlike the name of a common noun denoting a whole class of objects or phenomena, the name of their own designed for a single, well-defined object of this class. For example, "book" is a common noun name noun, while "War and peace". The word "river" is a name of a common noun, but "Cupid" is the name of your own.Proper names can be names of people, names, patronymics, names of books, songs, movies, and geographic locations. Proper nouns are capitalized. For some types of proper names need quotation marks. This applies to literary works ("Eugene Onegin"), paintings (Mona Lisa), movies ("go To fight some old people"), theatres ("Variety"), and other types of nouns.When translating proper names into other languages used methods of transcription and transliteration: Gogolya street (ulitsa Gogolya), radio Mayak (radio lighthouse). In the English language proper names are not highlighted specifically in quotes.Proper names and common nouns are not separated from each other by an impenetrable wall. Proper names can go to common nouns and Vice versa. For example, the word "avatar" was only a household name until he made the film "Avatar". Now this word depending on the context, plays the role of a common noun or a noun of its own. "Schumacher" - the name of a particular racer, but gradually "Schumacher" began to call all fans of fast driving.In common nouns from proper names can go trademarks which are unique manufacturers of a certain product or just monopolies. A vivid example can serve as a firm Xerox, which produces electrophotographic copiers. This firm exists to this day, but the "copier" now call all copiers at all.

Advice 2: How to determine your own name or a common noun

Nouns describe objects, phenomena or concepts. These values are expressed using categories of gender, number and case. All nouns are proper or common nouns. Own nouns serve as the names of individual objects, as opposed to a common noun denoting a summary of names of similar objects.
How to determine your own name or a common noun
For determining synonymous nouns select whether the named object or phenomenon to the class of homogeneous objects (city, person, song). Grammatical feature of nouns common noun – category of number, i.e. their use in singular and plural (cities, people, songs). Please note that most of the material, abstract and collective nouns has no plural form (gasoline, inspiration, youth).
To define your own set of nouns, is the name of the individual designation of the subject, i.e. does this "name" object from a number of homogeneous (Moscow, Russia Sidorov). Property nouns are called names and surnames of persons and names of animals (Nekrasov, Fluffy, Frou-Frou); geographical and astronomical objects (America, Stockholm, Venus); institutions, organizations, publications (newspaper "Pravda", the "Spartacus" shop "Eldorado").
Proper names typically do not change the numbers and used only in a single (Voronezh) or only plural (Sokolniki). Please note that to this rule there are exceptions. Own nouns are used in plural if you mean different individuals or items named the same (the Americas, the namesakes of Petrov); persons in family relations (family another). Private nouns can be used in the plural form, if you call a certain type of people, "highlighted" the quality of a famous literary character. Please note that in this sense the nouns are losing sign of belonging to a group of individual objects, therefore is valid as the use of uppercase and lowercase letters (Chichikovs, famusova, pecorini).
Spelling feature distinguishing nouns proper or common nouns, is the use of capital letters and quotation marks. All private names are always written with a capital letter, and the names of institutions, organizations, works, objects are used as applications and enclosed in quotation marks (the ship "Fedor Shalyapin", a novel by Turgenev "Fathers and children"). Part of the application may enter any part of speech, but the first word is always written with a capital letter (a novel by Daniel Defoe "the Life and strange surprising adventures of sailor Robinson Crusoe").
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