Advice 1: How to know if inclined surname

The correct spelling of proper names constitutes a substantial challenge not only for students but also for adults. In some cases, you need to bow your last name?
How to know if inclined surname
Instruction
1
The names with the suffix -SK is inclined according to the rules of declension of adjectives.
2
Female names with the suffixes-ov and -in are inclined according to the rules of declension of adjectives. Male names with these suffixes are different from normal adjectives decline in instrumental and prepositional cases of the singular (example: Griboyedov, Griboyedov).
3
Male and female names ending with -Oy, -iy, -yy, inflect as adjectives.
4
Names with the zero end of the bow depending on race. Male names tend as nouns masculine second declension (e.g., N. In. Gogol). Women's names are not inclined (for example, Anna Wrobel). Plural names are declinable as nouns are masculine.
5
Names ending with -em or -s and derived from the genitive of adjectives in the plural are not declined (e.g., twisted). In colloquial speech sometimes found the declension of surnames of this type, which is not a literary norm.
6
The names of non-Russian origin ending in -they are not inclined (for example, about Alice Freundlich).
7
Surnames ending in vowels -e, -e, -and, -s, -u, -Yu, -not inclined (e.g., Indira Gandhi).
8
Names ending with a vowel and not inclined, if the emphasis is on the last syllable (e.g. Dumas) or if the word ends in 2 vowels (e.g., Delacroix). Surnames ending in unstressed a, inclined as nouns of the first declension (e.g. Kafka). In this case, it is useful to remember that the French names are not declined.
9
Surnames ending in shock -I will not bow (e.g. Zola), in unstressed - inclined (for example, Beria).
10
The declension of names can occur in many ways. In particularly difficult cases it is recommended to refer to the "Directory names".

Advice 2: The declension of surnames in Russian language: hard cases

Russian language is considered one of the most complex to study from scratch. Of course, there is almost no irregular verbs and characters, but a lot of synonyms with subtle nuances, layers of cultural context and modified borrowing — all this gorosave beginners. And more names are inclined...
The famous Icelandic singer and actress Bjork is considered to be a carrier of one of the most unpronounceable names — Gudmundsdottir
Ending simple names like Ivanov, Petrov, Smirnov, problems usually arise. Certain difficulties may be faced only by those who are not well dealt with childbirth and cases: the name can be as feminine in the nominative case (citizen Solovyov) and in genitive ("we Have no Soloveva"). However, native speakers of a language, such cases are rare. Much harder it is if the names are not similar to the adjective (i.e. they cannot be substituted as an answer to the questions "what?" and "whose?" and to decline according to respective rules), or owned by foreigners.

And without rules


Most of the names regardless of origin can be inclined and used in the plural — the flexibility of the Russian language allows to do it without any damage: call Kschessinska, dreaming of Douglas, to admire Brin. It depends on the end of the names-polonism (-sky, -tsky, sky-cka) and male names in -in, -ov, and women's -ina, -ova bow always. For complex cases a twofold declension of the desire of her owner: Helen a Dozen may preserve relative steadfastness ("letter to Elena the Dozen", the name is considered a noun), so be Elena's Dozen (from the adjective).

Nonstandard and curiosities


Old Russian names-nouns in the masculine gender, such as a House, a Farmer, a Potter, etc. hanging around only in men: Victor House, Leonid Plowman, Alexei Gonchar, and women remain unchanged: Anastasia the Martyr, Veronica Forester. Names-feminine nouns (Beard, Aspen) mostly follow the same rule, if there is a categorical rejection on the part of their owner, but this may be the result is that the family tradition does not supersede the General rules for those unfamiliar with it. For names neuter (Onishchenko, Sieve, Velichko) there are no exceptions — they don't lean in any gender and number. Ourselves remain the surnames formed from nicknames or personal names of the ancestors in the genitive: Zhivago, ilinykh, twisted. A General rule male and female names ending in vowels -e, -, -, -, - Yu — not to persuade.

Georgians just


A few years ago in print has become a rejection of the decline of famous names — Soviet politician Lavrenty Beria and Director George Danelia. Journalists justify such writing that the name of the first Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia remain constant and unnecessary declination other Georgian names ending in -shvili and -dze. Its contribution to illiteracy has made liberal-minded public figures who did not want to "murder" names, "offending the sovereignty of their carriers" (similar to the polite nod of a foreign grammar — writing "in Ukraine, although the Russian literary norm unchanged: Ukraine). Nothing else, except foolishness, such an approach to native language can not be named. In fact the rules have not changed and the names of the Georgian -shvili and -dze as not inclined and not inclined, and the first two depend on writing endings -I or -a: "GamsakhurdiaI" is to lean, and Danieliand no. (Notable exception — Okudzhava, leaning.)

C Caucasus and Asia even easier


Male and Russified Armenian, Azerbaijani, Chechen, Ingush, Dagestan and all the Asian names tend: Hakobyan, Ararat Zurabyan, Kurginyan, Abishev, and Ivanovym, Aslamova for Kul-Muhammed, women not inclined. If, after the names is the linguistic end "-ogly" ("-Uli"), cease to bow, and men's names: Ali-oglu, Arman-uly.

Foreign foreign lands


Foreign names usually are changing Russified, up to use Russian endings, subject to the General rules: Dahl [Dahl, Dahl W.: neckl.), Kara-Murza (the same), Lermontov (inclined and declined, and childbirth). Foreign names of men ending in a soft or hard consonant, inclined: car Kozlevich, the book of Ilf, romance Bender; women remain unchanged.
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