You will need

- Calculator.

Instruction

1

Determine the radius of the tube R. If you want to calculate internal volume of pipe, it is necessary to find the inner radius. If you want to calculate the volume occupied by the pipe, we should calculate the radius. By measurements it's easy to get the diameter (both internal and external) and the length of the circumferential section of the pipe. If you know the diameter of the pipe, divide it into two. So, R=D/2 where D is the diameter. If you know the circumference of the cross section of the pipe, divide it by 2*PI, where PI=3.14159265. So, R=L/6,28318530, where L is the circumference.

2

Find the area of the cross section of the pipe. Raise the value of the radius squared and multiply it by PI. Thus, S=PI*R*R, where R is the radius of the tube. The cross-sectional area will be found in the same system of units, which had taken the radius value. For example, if the radius value is represented in centimeters, the cross-sectional area is calculated in square centimeters.

3

Calculate the volume of the pipe. Multiply the sectional area of the pipe to the length. The volume of the pipe V=S*L, where S is the cross-sectional area and L is the length of the pipe.

Note

Make sure to use the values of radius and length of the pipe expressed in the same units of measurement.

Useful advice

When the calculator, store in his memory the number of 2*PI. So you can easily calculate several values of the volume of tubes with different radii.

# Advice 2: How to find the volume of a pipe

Calculation of volume of any body is one of the classical problems of applied science. Such calculations are often required in engineering. To find the volume

**of the pipe**, is sufficient to produce a series of mathematical actions.You will need

- Calculator.

Instruction

1

Measure internal or external diameter

**of the pipe**, and the length of the circumferential section.2

Find the radius

**of the pipe**. If you want to calculate the internal volume, you need to find the inner radius. To calculate the volume that is occupied by the body, you need to calculate the outside radius. Divide the diameter by two. R=D/2. You can also use the length of the cross section: R=L/6,28318530. Here L is the length of the circumference, and the number is twice PI.3

Calculate the cross-sectional area

**of the pipe**. The radius value to construct a square, multiply it by PI. The cross-sectional area will be expressed in the same units as the radius value. For example, the radius is represented in centimeters. In this case, the cross-sectional area is expressed in square centimeters. The formula that calculates the cross-sectional area: S = R2*PI, where S is the desired area and R2 is the radius.4

Find the volume

**of the pipe**. To do this, multiply the length of**pipe**to the area of its cross section. Formula: V=S*L, where V is the volume**of the pipe**, S is the cross – sectional area, L is the length.5

Similarly, find the volume of all tubes (if they have different diameters).

Note

You must make sure that the length of the pipe and the radius are expressed in the same units of measurement. Otherwise you will get wrong value. Usually all calculations are done in centimeters and square centimeters.

Useful advice

If during the calculation you use a calculator in his memory can be recorded twice the number PI. Then we will quickly calculate the values of several volumes if you need to find the volume of the pipes with different diameters. Also in the memory of the calculator or computer, you can make ready-made formula for quick to make the necessary calculations. If you often work with mathematical formulas, can be downloaded from the Internet a special program.

# Advice 3: How to calculate the circumference

Circle - a geometric figure that is drawn on a plane. Is the circumference of the plurality of points that are equidistant from a given center. In order to calculate its

**length**, you can apply multiple formulas.You will need

- You will need the following values:
- R - length of radius of the circle;
- D - the length of the diameter of a circle;
- π is a constant (π = 3.14)

Instruction

1

Method 1. Let the plane of a circle. Its radius is equal to R. Then

L = 2nr.

Example: the Radius

**the length**L of this**circle**is considered thus:L = 2nr.

Example: the Radius

**of the circle**R = 5 cm Then the length of**circumference**L = 2*3.14*5 = 31.4 cm2

Method 2. Given a circle with diameter D. Then L is:

L = πD.

Example: the Diameter

L = 3.14*10=31.4 cm

L = πD.

Example: the Diameter

**of a circle**D = 10 cm Then L is calculated as:L = 3.14*10=31.4 cm

Note

The answers in the first and second method are equal, because the length of the radius equal to half the length of the diameter of the circle.

# Advice 4: How to calculate the volume of aquarium

The volume of your

**aquarium**is the starting point for a dozen computing. The volume depends on the type and quantity of fish and plants, the characteristics of the filter and the heater, the dosage of medicines and fertilizers, necessary for the successful functioning of your home ecosystem. How often novice aquarists are guided by the figure specified in the factory reservoir characteristics and wrong, sometimes irreparably for their Pets. If you want to turn your aquarium into an underwater Kingdom, will have to start with mathematics.You will need

- roulette
- pencil and paper
- calculator

Instruction

1

If your aquarium is a parallelogram, you need to measure the width, depth and length of the outside and record these values.

2

Now you have to calculate the internal dimensions. To do this, measure the thickness of the wall of the tank, multiply by two and subtract the resulting figure from every dimension. For example, the thickness of the wall

**of the aquarium**of 0.5 cm. You'll need to subtract an inch from the external length to find the inside length.3

Translate centimeters to meters and calculate the volume

**of the aquarium**using internal measurements. Multiply the length by the width and height and you will get the volume in cubic meters.4

Now turn the cubic meters to liters. One cubic meter is one thousand liters.

5

Take a standard 50 gallon tank with a wall thickness of 0.5 centimeters, and the following external dimensions 54х27х35 inches. The internal dimensions will be equal 53х26х34сантиметра. From each measurement we subtracted 1 centimeter, the thickness of the wall

**of the aquarium**, multiplied by two. Its volume in cubic meters will be of 0.54 x 0.26 x 0.35 = 0,0491 centimeter or 49 liters.6

It would seem that the difference of 1 liter is not so significant, but this amount corresponds to the amount of water noritomo in the tank to the brim and only if in the tank nothing else. If we don't fill up with water to the edge

**of the aquarium**is 3 cm, the water still 0.5 litre less. How do we know it? Multiplying the area of the bottom to a height from the water surface to the edge**of the aquarium**, i.e. 0,54х0,29х0,03, and translating the resulting figure – 0,0042 – cubic centimeters to liters.7

Now you can take about a liter of water to the volume occupied by the filter and the heater. And is around 0.5 litres on the driftwood or other decorations. And don't forget the algae. And there is still primer! 2 cm basalt crumb is about 0.8 liters of the total volume. So your 50 gallon tank actually holds about 47 liters. And the larger the tank, the more noticeable the difference between the stated volume and the actual.

Note

If you want to achieve perfect precision in the calculations, it is worth remembering that the proportion of basalt aggregate, quartz, river sand is different.

Useful advice

In the network there are a large number of links to various aquarium calculators online. They allow you to calculate the volume of your tank and weight required for the proper functioning of the soil.

# Advice 5: How to calculate the volume of pipe

To calculate the volume of

**pipe**, measure its length and inner and outer radii. Define square cross sections on the outer and inner radius, calculate the volumes. It will be the internal and external volume of the**pipe**. Then calculate the volume of the material from which made the pipe, by a simple subtraction. If you know the material from which made the pipe and can weigh it, calculate its volume using the density.You will need

- tape measure, calipers, a table of densities of some substances, Libra.

Instruction

1

Determination of the volume

**of the pipe**geometric metodos using the measuring tape or in any other way measure the length**of pipe**, including all bends. Then a caliper or other suitable device, locate the external and internal diameter**of the pipe**and calculate the radius, dividing each diameter by 2. Some**pipes**are marked in inches. To convert this value to meters, multiply inches or 0.0254 in. Most often indicated in inches inside diameter. Calculate the total volume**of the pipe**on the outer radius. For this, the number 3,14 multiply by the square of the outer radius, measured in meters and is measured in m length**of pipe**V=3,14•R2•l. Get the volume in cubic meters.2

Calculate the internal volume

**of the pipe**. Do it the same way as for the external volume only in the calculation, use the value of the internal radius**of the pipe**V=3,14•r2•l. So it is possible to determine the amount of a substance which may be in the pipe. This can be water, oil, gas, etc. to find the volume of the material from which made the pipe, from the amount subtract the inner. In order not to make unnecessary calculations in the event if you do not want to count the external and internal volumes, find the volume of the body**of the pipe**immediately. To do this, the difference of external and internal radii erect in the square, multiply by the number 3.14, and the length**of the pipe**V=3,14•(R-R)2•l.3

Determination of the volume of the body

**of the pipe**through protectionniste from a special table the density of the material from which made the pipe (steel, cast iron, plastic, glass, etc.) in kg/m3. Then weigh the tube on the scales, expressing its mass in kilograms. To get the volume of the body**of the pipe**, its mass divide by the density (V=m/ρ. Get the result in cubic meters. In all cases, when you need to translate cubic meters to cubic centimeters, multiply the result by 1,000,000.# Advice 6: How to find the area of the pipe

Pipes are mainly used for transportation of various liquid or gaseous materials. From the point of view of geometry it is an industrial product in most cases is a hollow cylinder, so when the need arises to calculate the surface area, it can be done using appropriate mathematical formulae.

Instruction

1

If you want to find

**the area of**the surface of the pipe, you have to take into account the thickness of its walls. You will need to calculate and add up the area of external and internal lateral surfaces as well as the same indicator for both ends. To do this, using calipers, ruler, centimeters or some other measurement tool determine the outer diameter (D) wall thickness (w) and length (l) of the pipe.2

Calculate

**the area of**the outer surface. If you imagine it in the scan, it will take the form of a rectangle one side of which is equal to the length of the pipe l. The value of the other hand determine by multiplying the outer diameter D on the number PI is the formula for the circumference of a circle. Multiply these values and you will get**the area of the**outer surface of the pipe: l*π*D.3

Calculate

**the area of**the inner surface. The formula is the same obtained in the previous step, but replacing the outer diameter on the inside. Calculate it, subtracting from external twice the wall thickness: D-2*w. Make the appropriate amendment to the formula: l*π*(D-2*w).4

Determine

**the area of the**end surfaces of the pipe - they can be represented by rings with a known external and internal diameters. The surface area of such geometric shapes is computed by multiplying the number PI by the difference in squared radii (half the diameter): π*((D/2)2-((D-2*w)/2)2) = π*(D2/4(D/2-w)2) = π*(D2/4-D2/4+D*w-w2) = π*(D*w-w2).5

Fold the resulting values of the areas of all the four surfaces: l*π*D + l*π*(D-2*w) + 2*π*(D*w-w2). Substitute in the formula are measured in the first step the values of diameter, length and wall thickness and calculate the required

**area of the**complete surface of the pipe. If it is necessary to calculate only the magnitude of the external or internal space, just eliminate from this formula with unnecessary components.# Advice 7: How to calculate the volume of the well

With the improvement of country house or cottage there is a need to provide housing for various public services and facilities. For example, for the device of water supply in the suburban area often have to make a homemade well. Getting to the construction of such facilities in advance to calculate its performance parameters, including total and useful volume.

Instruction

1

Getting to the calculations, remember that the average person consumes about 200 liters of water per day. Thus, for a family of three or four people should be about 0,6-0,8 cubic meters, taking into account possible additional water demand for household and technical needs will take maximum flow equal to 1 cubic meter.

2

Perform measurements of construction elements

**well**. If the well is planned to make concrete rings, based on the fact that the standard ring height is of 0.9 m and a diameter of 0.7-2 m. To calculate the volume occupied by one ring, measure the diameter, divide in half and multiply by the number PI, approximately equal to 3.14. Thus, the well represents the capacity of the three rings with a diameter of 1 m filled with water for about three days.3

To calculate the volume

**of the well**, folded in a rectangular or square frame, determine the cross-sectional area of the structure. With a conventional measuring tape, measure internal parameters of the framework, that is, the length and width of the walls. Multiply both figures by moving them to meters and you get the usable area**of the well**. To determine the total construction area, multiply the height of the frame.4

To calculate the displacement of the structure, it is necessary to pre-measure the water level in the well. Use this cord with a weight attached to its end. Slowly lower the load on the cord in the shaft

**of the well**until it reaches bottom.5

Now raise the load, and the length of the wet cord, determine the height of the layer of water in the well. Multiply the height of the aquifer the cross-sectional area of the mine

**well**, and you will receive the working volume**of the well**.6

If you plan to use to supply water from

**the well,**submersible pump, keep in mind that it should be located at a distance of not less than a meter from the bottom of the structure. Therefore, the magnitude of displacement**of the well**depends on the type of pump that you can use without the risk of damage of a technical device for the injection of water.# Advice 8: How to find the diameter of the pipe

The need to determine

**the diameter****of the pipe**often occurs when you replace sewer pipes, selection of towel warmer and other home jobs. It can be defined independently, for this you will need a tape measure or caliper.You will need

- tube;
- roulette;
- - caliper;
- - the range.

Instruction

1

Measure a tape measure or measuring tape the circumference

**of the pipe**, to do this, wrap it around and look at the value on the scale. Next, divide the resulting value by the number of PI = 3,1415. As a result, you will receive the outer**diameter****of the pipe**.2

If you have a caliper, you can measure the outer

**diameter**directly (for pipes up to 15 cm). To do this, grasp the tube by the jaws of the tool and view on a double scale, how many cm is**the diameter**.3

In order to know the internal

**diameter**, measure the wall thickness on the cut**pipe**. Measure with a ruler or caliper (the second method, of course, more precisely). Subtract from the outside**diameter**and wall thickness, multiplied by two the resulting number is the internal**diameter**.4

Often notations are made of tubes in inches. If you have measured in inches, try to translate them into inches. To do this, multiply

**the diameter**at 0,398 and you will get the size in inches. On the contrary, you can bring the**diameter**in inches to centimeters, just multiply it by 2.54.5

When choosing a towel warmer or other works for which you need to know

**the diameter of**a standard plumbing**pipe**held in your home, use the following simple way. Attach a line to the pipe and estimate its approximate**diameter**. If the eye is seen, that the tube has a width of about 32 cm – safely make the conclusion that the landing**diameter**of its 1 inch. Size 25-28 cm corresponds to a standard pipe of ¾ inch and the value in the 16 mm – 1.2 inches.Note

In the designation of a tubular metal such as pipes for steel construction or stainless steel tube used outer diameter, and wall thickness. For example, the entry looks like the following: 530x12. For water-gas supply pipes are of great importance inside diameter, so they are referred to, for example, 15x2 (at first glance, exactly the same). To determine which pipe in front of you, look at GOST. Water-gas supply pipes (VGP)is made according to GOST 3262.