# Advice 1: How to calculate the weight of pipe

Calculation of the mass of the pipe is required in determining the total weight of mounted pipelines or water pipelines. To calculate the total weight of the pipes necessary for the organization of their transportation. For calculations use the reference data, the estimated mass of pipes.
You will need
• card inventory, waybill, or a certificate on the pipe;
• — table of theoretical weights and GOST steel pipes;
• — GOST 18599-2001 "pressure Pipes made of polyethylene".
Instruction
1
Find in cards of the warehouse account, invoice or certificate, information about the pipe, the weight which you want to calculate. Pipes can be welded and seamless, round, water and gas supply tube, or profile. Determine the type of pipe. Confirm with the outer diameter and wall thickness in mm. Measure the length of one pipe in meters and count the number of pipes in order.
2
Find it in the Handbook of theoretical weights of steel pipes appropriate GOST type and estimated weight of one meter of pipe of the desired diameter and wall thickness. By multiplying the value of the mass per meter length of pipe, obtain the weight of pipe in kg. Calculate the total order weight by multiplying the weight of 1 pipe on their order quantity.
3
Calculate in a similar way weight polyethylene pipe, knowing her type, diameter, wall thickness and length. Use for computing the reference data of the standard in polyethylene pipe. To determine the weight of one meter of plastic pipe through the directory, you need to calculate the SDR or standard dimension ratio.
4
Divide the diameter of the plastic pipe to the thickness of its walls. So you'll find SDR in mm. Knowing the standard dimension ratio, look at the reference data of GOST the estimated weight per meter pipe of the necessary diameter. Next, calculate the weight need to cut pipe or the whole of the Bay, by multiplying weight per meter of pipe to the length.

# Advice 2: How to determine the mass of the pipe

Usually the pipe is in the form of a hollow cylinder, so that its weight depends on the wall thickness, material and length. If these parameters are given in terms of the problem, its solution is reduced to finding the formula in General, the substitution of values of variables and calculating the result. For practical calculations the mass of the pipe as industrial products, the values of variables can be learned from regulatory documents GOSTs.
Instruction
1
To create a formula calculate the mass of the pipe need to know the cross-sectional area of a hollow cylinder. To do this, must be a known wall thickness (a). If the conditions of the problem it is not, but the internal (d) and outer (D) diameters, we define the thickness of the walls through half the difference of these quantities: a = (D-d)/2. The cross-sectional area define as multiplied by the number of PI the difference between the work external diameter to the wall thickness and the square of the thickness of the walls: π*(D*a-a2).
2
Using the formula cross-sectional area, determine the volume that is enclosed between the outer and inner walls - multiply the obtained in the previous step, formula for length (L) of the pipe: π*(D*a-a2)*L.
3
To get the final formula for calculating the mass (m) of a hollow cylinder, it remains to consider the material from which the pipe is made. To do this, multiply the formula from the previous step for the density (ρ): m = π*(D*a-a2)*L*ρ.
4
Substitute into the formula the values given in the conditions of the problem, and calculate the result. In this case, consider the dimension of the input variables. For example, the outer diameter of the steel pipe is 30 cm, the wall thickness is 5 mm, a length of 4 m and density of steel - of 7.95 g/cm3. In this case, you can substitute in the formula all values in centimeters, to get the result in grams and convert it to kilograms: 3,14*(30*0,5-0,52)*400*7,95 = 3,14*14,75*400*7,95 = 147281,7 g ≈ 147,3 kg.
5
In practical calculations to determine the values of the variables that you want to substitute in the formula, use the marking on the pipe or as specified in the accompanying documents. Knowing her, to determine the desired value is possible according to the normative documents - state Standards. For example, the density of the steel pipes can be learned from GOST 9941-8, and the density of plastic is given in GOST 18599-2001.
6
If you only need approximate values, you can use the online calculators- a reference to one of them below. This service allows you to calculate the mass of the tubes of the eight types of metals.

# Advice 3: How to find the diameter of the pipe

The need to determine the diameter of the pipe often occurs when you replace sewer pipes, selection of towel warmer and other home jobs. It can be defined independently, for this you will need a tape measure or caliper.
You will need
• tube;
• roulette;
• - caliper;
• - the range.
Instruction
1
Measure a tape measure or measuring tape the circumference of the pipe, to do this, wrap it around and look at the value on the scale. Next, divide the resulting value by the number of PI = 3,1415. As a result, you will receive the outer diameter of the pipe.
2
If you have a caliper, you can measure the outer diameter directly (for pipes up to 15 cm). To do this, grasp the tube by the jaws of the tool and view on a double scale, how many cm is the diameter.
3
In order to know the internal diameter, measure the wall thickness on the cut pipe. Measure with a ruler or caliper (the second method, of course, more precisely). Subtract from the outside diameterand wall thickness, multiplied by two the resulting number is the internal diameter.
4
Often notations are made of tubes in inches. If you have measured in inches, try to translate them into inches. To do this, multiply the diameter at 0,398 and you will get the size in inches. On the contrary, you can bring the diameter in inches to centimeters, just multiply it by 2.54.
5
When choosing a towel warmer or other works for which you need to know the diameter of a standard plumbing pipeheld in your home, use the following simple way. Attach a line to the pipe and estimate its approximate diameter. If the eye is seen, that the tube has a width of about 32 cm – safely make the conclusion that the landing diameter of its 1 inch. Size 25-28 cm corresponds to a standard pipe of ¾ inch and the value in the 16 mm – 1.2 inches.
Note
In the designation of a tubular metal such as pipes for steel construction or stainless steel tube used outer diameter, and wall thickness. For example, the entry looks like the following: 530x12. For water-gas supply pipes are of great importance inside diameter, so they are referred to, for example, 15x2 (at first glance, exactly the same). To determine which pipe in front of you, look at GOST. Water-gas supply pipes (VGP)is made according to GOST 3262.

# Advice 4: How to calculate amount of concrete

The exact calculation of quantity of concreteto be laid in the formwork – one of the conditions for competent performance of construction works. Excess concrete, as a rule, use nowhere. The mixer will take either pre-ordered and paid for the concrete, or dumped it to a specified location, creating a monument to your stupidity. Violation of the same construction technology due to the lack of concrete will lead to even more serious consequences. Consider the example of a strip Foundation, how to avoid such errors.
You will need
• - line
• roulette,
• calculator.
Instruction
1
Ready-mixed concrete of various grades, which is a semi-liquid mass, depending on its structure has unequal shrink – the smaller the cement and water, the less significant changes of volumeand of the concrete during curing. In addition, the magnitude of the shrinkage of concrete is influenced by other factors, such as the way of the seal: when shtykovaniem shovel shrinkage is smaller than when sealing concrete with deep vibrator. When calculating the required amount of concrete generally use the same average coefficient of shrinkage equal to 1,015-1,02.
2
Calculate the volume of the pre-concreted design, according to the draft (sketch). To do this, multiply the width, height and length of the Foundation.
3
Check after the construction of the formwork according to height, width and length of the Foundation with design values. Small deviations of the dimensions in a big way lead to a substantial increase in the required amount of concrete. Use of inventory formwork of steel frames and plywood allows to minimize these errors.
4
Multiply the resulting volume by the shrinkage factor.
5
Subtract from this value the volume of all openings and niches for engineering services (pipes, ducts). To do this, you need to calculate the appropriate volume according to the formula for determining the volume of a cylinder (area of a circle multiply the height) or a parallelepiped (length multiplied by width and height). The resulting value will be the amount of concretethat is required to fill the design.
Note
In order to avoid errors in the calculations, all measurements (length, width and height of the Foundation and openings in it) should be in the same units – metres.

It is very important that in case of using wooden formwork, it was the most aligned and tightly fastened, otherwise the formwork may bursting from the weight of poured concrete. Considerable importance is the absence of gaps between the boards, which will leak water seal pour of concrete, which also leads to change in a big way the shrinkage factor.