You will need

- roulette,
- calculator,
- - Handbook of elementary mathematics.

Instruction

1

Capacity in the form of a cylinder.

Measure tape measure the height and base diameter of the cylinder – usually, this form have the gas cylinders, drums and tank cars for different liquids, and glass, plastic and metal cans for canned food. Divide the diameter by two to get the radius. Multiply area of base of cylinder (area of a circle is equal to 3, 14* radius squared) to its height. This is the volume of the cylinder.

Measure tape measure the height and base diameter of the cylinder – usually, this form have the gas cylinders, drums and tank cars for different liquids, and glass, plastic and metal cans for canned food. Divide the diameter by two to get the radius. Multiply area of base of cylinder (area of a circle is equal to 3, 14* radius squared) to its height. This is the volume of the cylinder.

2

Capacity in the form of a cone.

Measure tape measure the base diameter and the height of the cone. Use the calculator to calculate the volume of the container. It is equal to one third the product of area of base (circle) and the height of the cone.

Measure tape measure the base diameter and the height of the cone. Use the calculator to calculate the volume of the container. It is equal to one third the product of area of base (circle) and the height of the cone.

3

Capacity in the form of a ball.

Tape measure measure the diameter of the ball. If it is difficult to execute, measure length of a circle – clasp your roulette ball at the equator or the zero Meridian, i.e. in the place where the circumference is maximum. In order to calculate the diameter, the resulting value is divided by the number of "PI", that is 3,14. Divide the diameter in half – this will be the radius. The volume of a sphere is equal to 4/3 works of PI and the radius of the ball in the cube.

Tape measure measure the diameter of the ball. If it is difficult to execute, measure length of a circle – clasp your roulette ball at the equator or the zero Meridian, i.e. in the place where the circumference is maximum. In order to calculate the diameter, the resulting value is divided by the number of "PI", that is 3,14. Divide the diameter in half – this will be the radius. The volume of a sphere is equal to 4/3 works of PI and the radius of the ball in the cube.

4

Capacity in the form of a parallelepiped.

A tape measure, measure the width, height and length of the parallelepiped, that is, three sides, having one common point. Multiply the values obtained. This will be the highest volume of containers of this type, often used for storage and transportation of various liquids.

A tape measure, measure the width, height and length of the parallelepiped, that is, three sides, having one common point. Multiply the values obtained. This will be the highest volume of containers of this type, often used for storage and transportation of various liquids.

Note

In calculations, all measurements of the geometric dimensions must be in the same units (millimeters, centimeters or meters).

Useful advice

For more complex forms of containers, they should be divided into such geometric shapes, with reference on mathematics available ready-made formula for calculating the volume (sphere, cylinder, pyramid, parallelepiped, etc.). Calculating separately the volumes of the components of the figures and after adding them together you get a tank volume of complex shape.

# Advice 2: How to calculate the volume of a cube

Calculate the volume

**of a cube**may be necessary not only in solving mathematical problems. For example, you need to know how many bricks in a package of the cubic form or how much liquid or dry ingredients will fit into a container. For this course, you will need to clear up a few options, but first, you need to calculate the volume**of a cube**.You will need

- To recall the definition and properties of a cube
- Measuring device

Instruction

1

Remember what CC It is a right hexahedron — geometric solid, each face of which represents a square. Since all sides

**of a cube**are the same — and faces his equal, as were the ribs. That is, to determine the volume you need to know the size of only one face.2

Remember, what is the volume of the parallelepiped. It is equal to the area of the base multiplied by the height. But

**the cube**length, width and height are equal. The cube can be put on any face, all the same, the footprint will be the same as in the original position. Indicate the edge**of the cube**as well. Find the area of the base. It is equal to the product of the length by the width, that is, S=a2..3

Calculate the volume by multiplying the area of the base A2 at the height which in this case is also equal. Accordingly, the volume V is equal to the size of the edge

**of the cube**erected in the third degree. V=a3.4

If you need to calculate the amount of a substance, which is supposed to fill a container of cubic shape, it is necessary to know the density of the substance. This number will be equal to the density multiplied by the volume

**of the cube**. And in order to calculate, for example, the number of bricks in a container of cubic shape, it is necessary to calculate the volume of each brick, then divide the volume of the container to the volume of the brick.Note

In some cases it is necessary to find the volume and the area of the walls - for example, when calculating the number of glass for the aquarium. Since all faces of a cube are the same, the square sum of the areas of the 6 faces, that is expressed by the formula S=6a2

Useful advice

Try practical measurements as accurate as possible. You can use a ruler, tape measure, bar-compass. Importantly, the division met the standards.

# Advice 3: How to calculate building materials

In your plans overhaul or building a country house (dacha), but how much money is everything you need to know. After all, you need to calculate everything from layout to construction materials. But how to guess the quantity and price of all units know.

You will need

- project, time, money

Instruction

1

Company. Today there are many firms that for your money do all the work, since the calculation of the building materials and ending with the construction of the house. The main thing that you will need to do is tell your vision, desires and, of course, to pay the organization for services. The price can reach round the amounts, but you won't need to waste your time, effort and nerves.

2

Do it yourself. If you decide to do everything yourself and not rely on someone, there is a lot to consider. Really, so you'll save money, plus be sure that everything is done on the conscience.

3

The house project. The first thing you should do is to make a project plan of the future house. To do this, swipe the measurements of the room, which is beyond repair. Consider the maximum and minimize waste, if it is real.

4

Calculation of building materials. First calculate the cost of the so-called "draft" materials - those that are needed for preparatory works. This plaster, nails, primers, fillers, adhesives, dry mixes, plumbing pipes, wires, cranes and other. Next, calculate the cost of finishing materials. It's linoleum, parquet Board, parquet, skirting, fitted carpet, decorative coatings, ceilings, Wallpaper, decorative panels, PVC Windows, doors, electrical outlets, sanitary devices, tiles, etc.

5

During the calculation of quantity of materials such as carpet, Wallpaper, linoleum, tile measure beforehand once more the room, considering the arches, niches, over door and around the window space.

6

Purchase. Pre-take a trip to the market, visit the hypermarkets, etc. the Main goal is to find the reasonable price and promotions. At the time of purchase be sure to take a structured project plan, otherwise you can buy an extra or, worse, forget to buy something.

Useful advice

The calculation is conducted, and materials during the repair is not enough. To avoid this, after counting the cost necessarily add to the amount of 15-20 percent, and if you are planning a major overhaul, all 25%.

# Advice 4: How to calculate compression ratio

One of the parameters adjusted by the engine –

**the degree****of compression**. The value of this indicator is closely linked to power, detonation resistance, cost effectiveness and other such salient features of the engine. In view of this, it is important to calculate the compression ratio.You will need

- calculator;
- - burette;
- glass;
- sealant.

Instruction

1

The compression ratio is defined as the ratio of the full volume ofa cylinder of the internal combustion engine to the volume of the combustion chamber. Expect this figure according to the following formula: CR=(V + C)/C, where V is the working capacity of cylinder – volume of the combustion chamber.

2

To find the capacity of one cylinder, needs engine capacity (displacement) divided by the number of cylinders. For example, if the displacement four-cylinder engine is equal to 1200 cubic centimeters, the capacity of one cylinder is equal to 300 cubic centimeters.

3

The capacity of the combustion chamber is the volume that remains above the piston when the latter is at top dead center. It includes several variables: the volume of the cavity in the head, a cut (in the bottom of the piston), the volume between the upper part of the piston unit and the upper part of the cylinder Assembly while the piston in the top dead point and the volume equal to the thickness of the strip.

4

If the gasket is round, the amount equal to its thickness, determined by the formula: Vcc=[(p*D2*L)/4]/1,000, where p=3,142, where L is the thickness of the gaskets in the clamped condition (in mm), D is the diameter of the holes in the gasket (in mm). If the gasket is not round, then measure the volume at the burette. To do this, glue the gasket with sealant to the glass, then place glass on a flat surface and fill with water the hole in the gasket, using a burette.

5

Knowing the working capacity of the cylinder and the combustion chamber volume, substitute these values into the formula and calculate the compression ratio.

6

Thermal efficiency is directly related to the compression ratio: the higher the compression the less fuel used by an engine to generate the required power.

Note

In any case, do not modify independently the combustion chamber because they may interfere with the processes of displacement!

Useful advice

The efficiency of diesel engines is largely due to typical values of compression ratio: the value of this indicator may vary from 18:1 to 22:1.