You will need
- - regular supervision by a obstetrician-gynecologist.
During pregnancy try time pass ultrasonography (us). At a minimum we recommend three treatments during pregnancy at 11-14, 20-24 and 30-34 weeks obstetric. There are several signs, which may indicate the presence of chromosomal pathology in fetus: increased nuchal translucency, fast or slow heartbeat, abnormalities in the structure of the heart, too small size of the maxillary bones, and many others. These signs do not mean that the fetus has a genetic disorder, but those results ultrasound is attentive to the issue of appointment of additional surveys.
Simultaneously with the ultrasound in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy pass a screening blood tests. In the course of these studies takes into account the levels of various factors in serum and other indicators, such as maternal age, presence of harmful habits, weight, indicators ultrasound of the fetus. From the lab results come in the form of calculated probability of the presence of certain abnormalities in the genome. At high values, discuss with your doctor the need for surveys with greater accuracy.
If you suspect the presence of abnormalities of the fetus , you can go through the procedure of chorionic villus sampling, amnio -, or cordocentesis. All these tests aimed at the direct study of the chromosomes of the fetus and detection of certain genetic abnormalities. The accuracy of this procedure is quite high. The fence material for analysis occurs in the fetus, from the amniotic SAC (amniocentesis), umbilical cord (cordocentesis) or villus of the placenta. Because it anyway there is damage to the membranes of the embryo, increases the risk of spontaneous abortion: it should take into account when making decisions.
In these studies, like ultrasound and screening for markers of blood serum, there is a high probability of error, therefore it is recommended to repeat the examination. It is advisable to use the services of different labs and specialists. Anyway, to conclude the presence of abnormalities in the fetus only at these indicators, it is not necessary.
Advice 2 : Will do ultrasound in pregnancy, the deformity of the fetus
Pregnant ultrasound allows to detect 90% of all known deformities and anomalies of development of fetus. The diagnostic performance depends on the accuracy of the settings of equipment, the degree of accuracy of ultrasound, expertise of the doctor. Gross malformations, anomalies incompatible with life, and deformity, leading to disability, visible very well. Minor malformations of internal organs can be seen and diagnosed only after birth.
In the first trimester ultrasound is done for a period of 11-13 weeks. Doctor, measuring separately size, nuchal translucency thickness, the length of the fetus from crown to rump and conducting a study of section of the bones of the skull, is able with sufficient accuracy to suggest the presence of anomalies neural tube, brain and chromosomal mutations. Atresia of the duodenum, renal anomalies, hernia of the spinal cord and brain, defects abdominal ─ objective ultrasound data is enough to identify these anomalies. Themselves the ugliness may not be visible, the conclusion is based on the statistical data. Since the limbs are already formed, that on pen ultrasound their visible defects.
For the term of 20 weeks is clearly visible smaller deformities ─ pathology of the skeletal system, pathology of the brain and gross malformations of the heart. Hydrocephalus, anecephaly, the lack of eyes in the fetus, absence of fingers or extra fingers on the upper and lower extremities, visible features of the development of Siamese twins, which allows doctors to change the tactics of management of pregnancy ─ after surgery these children, albeit different from the other, but it may take care of themselves, mental activity is rarely. Ultrasound at 20 weeks to do and in order to confirm or refute the data of the first ultrasound. The fact is that hernia that the doctor will see the first ultrasound, can be independent pathologies, in this case, successfully treated, and can be a part of the manifestations of Edwards syndrome ─ this defect considered incompatible with life. At this period a well marked abnormalities of the genital organs.
At 32-34 weeks, the doctor is able to see the violation that previously did not show. These violations do not require an active action before the birth. But the woman can be given a direction to a specialized hospital, where the child will assist in the first hours of life. It could be a bowel obstruction, for example, structurally unstable heart defects, abnormalities in the urinary system. Such diseases are eliminated immediately after birth or in a planned manner and the child grows healthy. At 32-34 weeks to confirm the presence of cleft palate (cleft palate). Modern facial surgery eliminates this defect in the first 6-12 months of a child's life.
Ultrasound does not give a 100% guarantee. Often it is necessary to do again while may be invited specialists of different levels. This is important, as timely diagnosis of severe deformities that make the child viable, allow you to terminate the pregnancy in time. The birth of children with complex defects ─ even more stressful than the interruption. In this case, equally hard and mother and child. The child is in pain, often die in the first months after birth.