You will need
- - analysis of the blood for oncomarkers;
- - inspection by palpation;
- - hardware diagnostics;
- - analysis of tissue biopsy.
The appearance of malignant tumors contributes to an impaired immune system, which is designed to recognize all foreign and superfluous cells and immediately destroy them. Malignant tumor differs from a benign ability to produce filamentous appendages, which affects the nearby organs and tissues, forming metastases. As a result, the organs begin to work defective, which ultimately leads to their complete atrophy and death.
The first form of diagnosis, allowing to determine the presence of malignant cells, is a blood test for tumor markers. If the analysis showed the presence of tumor markers, there shall be additional types of research.
The earliest form of hardware diagnostics of a malignant tumor is ultrasound, magnetic resonance or computed tomography, mammography, radiography. Survey methods depend on the body that need to be examined. For example, malignant neoplasms of the breast can be determined early through mammography, the larynx – with the help of fibrolaryngoscopy or microlaryngoscopy. In the first case, the inspection is conducted by the endoscope, and the second a microscope.
Malignant tumors of the cervix, fundus and body of the uterus is diagnosed using an endoscope. The same diagnostics apply for the colon. In all cases, the tumor is found take the tissue sample for a biopsy. This is the final diagnosis, allowing a doctor to put the final diagnosis.
The most modern method of early diagnosis of the presence of malignant neoplasms is modern technology immunomagnetic enrichment. For the analysis take blood and determine the number Veridex CellSearch in the laboratory. A large number of these cells allows you with 100% certainty say that a malignant tumor is present.
A later stage of the emergence of malignant neoplasms is possible to determine by palpation if self-or during the medical examination.
Advice 2: How to identify metastases
The danger of cancerous tumors is the ability to generate secondary foci – metastases. Often this process is uncontrolled and asymptomatic. Localization of metastases depends on tactics of treatment of the patient, and therefore it is important to detect and destroy them.
Metastases to bone often gives breast, thyroid, prostate, kidney tumors, lung, ovarian, gastrointestinal tract, Ewing's sarcoma, melanoma, sarcomas of the soft tissues and many tumors, which revealed no primary lesion. Because metastases do not manifest themselves from time to time for diagnostic purposes is shown holding scintigraphy. In this test the patient is injected into the body of radioactive isotopes, and then scan the skeletal system. Upon detection of suspicious foci of isotope accumulation indicating bone metastases, additionally performed computed tomography (CT) and radiography.
Another favorite place for metastasis is the liver. Therefore, patients with any type cancer regularly shown holding ultrasound. If there is suspicion of a secondary tumor foci, should be more precise diagnostic procedures: a computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
To identify a secondary cancer in the lung shows the radiography of the chest. The most accurate form of diagnosis is computed tomography using contrast material. But if you decide to resort to this diagnostic method, be prepared for the fact that it will need regular follow-up, and it will be paid from your personal funds. The majority of doctors believes that when the radiograph is no reason for CT, so better take advantage of that offers free medicine.
For the detection of brain metastases are shown MRI with contrast. Most often, secondary tumors in the head occur in patients with renal cell carcinoma, breast cancer, lung melanoma.
Advice 3: How to determine cancer in the early stages
Important diagnostic role in the detection of cancer diseases plays ultrasound, which can detect tumors in the earliest stages of their development with a certain degree of local prevalence. Such are the properties and tumor markers – specific substances in the body, elevated levels of which can confirm the presence of tumor. They also help to monitor the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions.
What changes in the body can signal the beginning of the cancer process?
Timely detection of cancer in most cases contributes to their successful treatment. The main thing – immediately to respond to any changes in health and report them to the doctor.
Any unexplained weight loss in most patients, cancer centres was the first sign of a pathological process. If there are no problems of the thyroid gland was not observed the diet, was active playing sports and was not a specific goal to lose weight, weight loss may signal the development of serious diseases.
Unexplained bleeding in women is another disturbing harbinger for the possible development of the tumor. Emerged in predmenopauzne age, they can indicate endometrial cancer or colon.
Chronic fatigue or lack of energy with proper diet and a rational mode of work and rest may be signs of leukemia.
The increase and compaction of the lymph nodes in the neck and in the armpits are not always told about the cancer. But checked at the doctor once again does not hurt, since such changes can be a sign of bad changes to the lymph nodes.
Reaction of the skin malignant neoplasms
The reason for the suspicion of breast cancer is not only a breast lump. Some cases of thickening of the breast skin and rashes on her over the most dangerous form of cancer inflammatory. A modification of the nipple and any discharge from them also require urgent and immediate specialist advice.
Cancer skin disease melanoma at an early stage may begin with minor changes of the skin. Malignancy occurs or in an existing mole or starts with the formation of a new, larger nevus.
In the early stages of development melanoma, the doctor may determine on such deviations of moles as:
- distortion of their edges, and asymmetry;
- the acquisition of the mole bright red, black and a bluish color;
- bleeding, itching, cover crusts;
- the size of the nevus exceeds the value of 7 mm.
Blood in the products of defecation as a symptom of cancer
The presence of bright red or dark blood in the stool is a clear symptom of the pathology of the digestive tract. Abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhoea, feeling full bowel after going to the toilet may indicate the course of the disease process.
Detection of cancer – not an easy task, because malignancy can masquerade as other diseases, in a similar symptoms.
However, afraid of blood in advance should not be. Need a few days to observe the nature of the chair and only in the absence of changes for the better to consult a doctor, because of its appearance in the stool could be certain foods or drugs.
Advice 4: How to distinguish benign from malignant tumors
Cancer is one of the most serious diseases of our time. But fortunately for many people, not every tumor can be considered cancerous i.e. malignant. Among them are benign. How to distinguish one from the other?
First, understand the difference between benign and malignant tumors. In the first case, the tumor has no common adverse effects on the human body and can only in some situations to compress the individual organs. In the second case, the tumor may metastasize, that is spread to neighboring organs and cause death from the disease.
In the case of suspected tumor in the breast gently touch her hands. Benign growths, for example, cysts usually soft to the touch, and also have properties vary in size depending on the day of the menstrual cycle. Examination of the breast in the case of benign tumors is usually painless. At the same time, cancers are usually firm to the touch, and often accompanied by changes in the lymph nodes.
To check the skin for changes carefully consider it. If you find a mole that has changed color, increased in size, and its edge has become uneven, there is the risk of cancer in this place. Soreness can also indicate the risk of tumors, and the speed of its development.
To determine the properties of internal tumors pay attention to the symptoms. The presence of blood in the urine, various types of bleeding can in some cases indicate a malignant tumor.
Contact your doctor even if you have all the criteria sure that you have developed a relatively safe benign tumor. First, your assessment would be inaccurate, since it is not backed up by any tests, no ultrasound, no biopsy. Second, even harmless tumors tend to periodically reborn. Therefore, even such a tumor your doctor may recommend to remove or to treat with special preparations.