Advice 1: "No" with a gerund: a rule, exceptions and difficult cases

The gerund in the Russian language is an independent part of speech, it is a special form of the verb and indicates an incremental effect. Thus, this part of the speech carries signs and verb, and adverb. The gerund answers the questions: "What doing?", "What doing?"

"No" with a gerund: a rule, exceptions and difficult cases

The General rule




The basic rule of writing the particle "not" with gerunds is that the particle should be written separately. It is easy to remember by analogy with verbs: once "not" with verbs it is written separately, and "not" with gerunds formed from these verbs, is also written separately. For example: not listening, not creating, not being able to. During the lesson he did his own thing, not listening to the teacher.


Exceptions




"Not" with the gerund written together only in one case: if no "no" word is not used. For example: hating, newslabel, angry. Newslabel daughter-in-law, Tatiana complained about her son. "Not" in this case can not be removed, is part of the word.


Another slight complication is that the particle "not" is easily confused with the prefix "under". The prefix is part of the word and is written together: nedodelal, underestimating, lack of sleep. He left work, nedodelal report. In this case, the root word is "del", and "under" is a prefix inseparable from the root.


Complexity and difficult cases




The main difficulty of writing "not" with the gerund is in the use of homonymous forms. That is, the same sounding words in the Russian language may have different lexical meaning, and, accordingly, different spelling.


For example, the words "famished" and "not eating" have a different meaning and therefore are written in different ways. Mom goes to work, not eating Breakfast. Here the word is used to mean "can't eat the whole thing." In this case "not" is written separately. During the war people lived, starved for months. Here the meaning is different – "I have not eaten to the end." This option is written together.


Also often made errors due to indistinguishable to the ear from each other gerunds and derived prepositions. For example: "despite" and "despite". Not looking at the sky, he moved on. In this case, we use the gerund, which is written separately from "no". Despite the temperature, she went to school. Here "although" is derived the preposition and it is written together.


To easily distinguish a gerund from a preposition, you need to ask a question to the needed word. So the gerund will approach the question: "What doing?" or "What doing?" He moved on, doing what? Not looking at the sky. To the second sentence questions gerunds are not suitable.


Also, the gerund is easy to determine because it can be replaced with no distortion of meaning in the sentence. He moved on and did not look at the sky. The second example in the same way to transform impossible.

Advice 2: In some cases, "to" it is written separately

Rules for writing certain words of the Russian language from time to time raises doubts even among adults, good or bad, but studying in high school. Unfortunately, the acquired knowledge may be forgotten with time, which is fraught with issues in the preparation of certain texts. So when you write "to" and when "whatever"?
In some cases, "to" it is written separately

When "to" need to write together



In case of arising doubt just say the proposal, which appears "to". If it loses its meaning and can not be written without the particle "to" you need cursive writing.

Such proposals commonly appear in the Russian language for the selection of clauses and expressions indicate a particular purpose or the consequences of anything.

For example, the sentence "love to live" loses some meaning and structure without "to" - "love to live", so writing "love to live" is not correct. Another example: "to know a person we must understand him." Again take a particle, with the result that you will get a "what to know a person need to understand and realize that the wrong will be separate writing.

You also need to remember that in any case and never in the Russian language allowed writing "something" with a hyphen or dash!

Other examples of one word: "every woman wants her and loved and respected", "life should be lived so that afterwards there was no shame for aimlessly spent years," "he always wanted that we were together", "nobody wants to be laughed at" and "to find a paying job, you need to learn."

Separate writing "to"



In the same case, if the utterance of the sentence is possible without some loss of meaning without "would", the correct spelling is "whatever".

Examples: "what would with me no matter what happens, a true friend will always come to help me", "I will not believe that you would have told me", "the second half will always support you, whatever you come up with", "to ask this year Santa Claus?", "what would I wear to this party?"

As clearly seen from the above examples, the offer, of course, sometimes getting a little "sloppy", but its meaning remains the same, and in some cases does not change at all – "what do I ask for this year from Santa Claus?" and "what should I wear to this party" perfectly sound and without "would". Reduced in doubt, implied in the speech of a speaker this man's offer.

For people who are unable the first time to feel the lack of "if" and is true, there is one simple advice. It is best to say problem offer with maintaining a moment's pause between "that" and "would." It is the pronunciation will help you to feel the relevance and irrelevance of either option.
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