Advice 1: How to place commas correctly

Punctuation is a system of graphic punctuation marks and rules for their use. With it is made the text: articulation of the text is determined by its focus and the intonational pattern. Knowledge of the rules of punctuation makes it clear and helps in mastering the difficult level of language – syntax.
How to place commas correctly
Instruction
1
Determine what is the role of commas in the sentence. To separate single characters are used to highlight pairs. Compare: "the Heat is unbearable, Yes plain treeless expanse of the celestial Empire" and "Band dawn mist, curly veil over the field, nickle and went into the black darkness of the forest." In the first case, a comma separates independent sentences in the composition of complex syntax, the second is allocated participial.
2
Most often the separation commas are used in homogeneous parts of the sentence connected conjunctionless connection: "the waves rushed barges, boats, planks, beams, roofs, uprooted trees." Please note that the separating comma is not put at a steady speed (to talk about this and that, nor woke up at the crack of dawn) and is not used in compound names (tea spoon Melchior).
3
Determine whether the offer between homogeneous members repeated alliances. In this case, the commas are placed, in contrast to structures with a single coordinating alliances. For example: "I managed to be at the rink and the theater"; "I managed to be at the rink and in the theater."
4
Always use a separating comma before the adversative conjunctions (but, but, but, but, yeah): "Everywhere smells like Linden blossoms, and here especially". Please note that the word "Yes" may be the connective close in meaning to the word "and". In this case, the comma is not put before him: "I was haunted by anxiety Yes, the thirst for change".
5
A simple sentence can be complicated by isolated secondary members of sentences, catching intonation and meaning, acquiring a relative autonomy. When deciding on the allocation of paired commas nonessential part of the sentence, consider:
- what word (part of speech) it relates;
- what it is expressed, circulated or not;
- its location relative to the main word (either before or after, separated or not by other members of the proposal);
- the presence or absence of additional shades of meaning (e.g., reasons, concessions).
6
Obasalsya definitions, applications, add-ons or circumstances that follow specific punctuation rules, not only of pronunciation intonation.
7
Use the paired excretory commas if the sentence is complicated constructions, grammatically not connected with other members. Such structures include the treatment, introductory words and introductory offers. For example: "My love, eh I forget you?" − the proposal highlighted the appeal of "my love"; "He believed, of course," − highlighted by a pair of commas the introductory word "say".
8
Separate by commas simple sentences in the complex. To do this, find grammar basics, define the boundaries of simple sentences and arrange the signs. For example, in the sentence "Spring shone in the sky, although the woods are still in winter was covered with snow" two grammatical foundations "spring shone" and "the woods were covered". This is a complex sentence, whose parts must be separated by a comma.

Advice 2: How to check commas

Written language is complicated by the fact that there are some rules that you need to know in order to be considered an educated person. The presence of spelling and punctuation errors may adversely affect the impression of business partners, employers and sweetheart. Learning to correctly place the commas!
How to check commas
You will need
  • Textbook of the Russian language, knowledge of rules of punctuation
Instruction
1
Define the structure of a sentence. Sentences can be simple or complex. In one simple grammatical basis in the complex - two or more. Based on the subject (answers the questions: who? what?) and the predicate (answers the questions: what does? what did?). For example, a simple sentence: "Sasha bought cake, chocolate and waffles" ("Sasha" - subject, "bought" is the verb, a comma separated homogeneous add-ons: "cake", "chocolate", "wafer"). Complex sentence such as, "Dad told her that we will arrive late" (first base: male subject, "said" - verb, second base: "we" is the subject "come" - sigueme).
2
Consider a simple sentence. In simple sentences, a comma usually separates the homogeneous members of the sentence, for example, when the transfer: "I brought yellow, red and blue balls. The app, priced after personal pronouns, segregated by commas on both sides: "I, the journalist, could not believe that the newspaper issued by one person". Also, we put commas at the expressions with explanatory momentum (i.e., (and), even, especially, mainly, including, for example, in particular, and, moreover) and introductory words (apparently so, likely, probably). Stand out Supplement with prepositions besides, apart from, excepting, excluding, including, and beyond: "Who but the mother regret it?" Commas put and the allocation of ownership and verbal participle phrases (and involved in emit only when they are defined): "Land, watered by rain, turned black and cold" (gerund). "Approaching the station, I lost my hat" (the participial turnover).
3
Determine the type of complex sentences. If you found two grammatical basis in the offer, you should determine its type: coordinating or subordinating. In coordinating simple sentences are joined without Union or with the conjunction and, and but. In a compound sentence, you will see the dependence of one part from another and unions as, as if, what, who, when, since, unless, before, where, and others.
4
Analyze run-on sentence. All proposals included in its composition, equivalently, as a rule, can be separated from each other: "We looked out the window, my mother was cooking dinner." The presence of the preposition a, but speaks of the necessity of the comma front. Before preposition in a complex sentence, a comma, for example: "the Summer was the debilitating heat, and we went South." The other commas are placed according to the same rules as in a simple sentence.
5
Analyze complex sentence. A comma separates simple sentences included in it, and there is importantly, there is dependent (s) offer (s). Dependent (subordinate) clause in the composition of the compound marked by the presence of the Union: Until we looked on the field (dependent supply), the girl ran away (main). From the main we can ask the question to the dependent. Thus we distinguish them from one another, so we know where exactly a comma.
Note
If a simple sentence have a common secondary member, a lead-in, treatment, put a comma: In the gardens a band was playing and singing folk choir. also do not put a comma in a complex sentence with the subordinate General: "When I returned home, the sunshine was gone and grandpa must have went to bed".
Useful advice
If you are in doubt whether to put a comma, change the sentence so that the problem disappeared: break a complex sentence into two simple, reduce the number of introductory words, replace the participial momentum in the subordinate clause.

Advice 3: Why do we need commas

Culture of speech and spelling includes correct placement of punctuation marks, including commas. In addition, correctly placed commas help to convey the exact meaning implied by the author in the text.
Why do we need commas
In the study of spelling is an important punctuation in General and commas in particular. Pay attention to the fact that very often depending on the punctuation change the tone of the spoken text, and even its meaning. With commas, the author identifies the intonational-semantic segments. These include the introductory phrase, separate the terms of the proposal, treatment, uniform of the sentence and a simple sentence comprising part of the complex. For a simple example, consider how different the position of the commas in the text is able to change the original meaning of the sentence to the opposite.An example would be a short but very interesting phrase: "Execute not pardon" from the famous cartoon. In the example, the commas are missing. For starters, look at what is the meaning of acquire the phrase, if you put a comma after the first word: "Execute not pardon". Now, notice how essentially transforms the meaning of the phrase when a comma after the second word: "eats, pardon". Comparing these examples, it is easy to come to the conclusion that the meaning of the sentence depends on where there is a comma. That is, the commas can show the reader which word to emphasize and how to properly use intonation color, in order to correctly convey the meaning.Let's use another example: "She's probably still drinking morning coffee and biscuits (Fadeev). Commas, distinguishing the introductory word "must" indicates that this section of the proposal is not relevant to information contained in the text. The highlighted section should say is quieter and faster than the rest of the sentence.From the above examples it is clear how important is the role of the comma, passing the structure of the sentence, its meaning and intonation.

Advice 4: When a comma in a simple sentence

Simple is the proposal having only one grammatical basis in the composition. It may have numerous secondary members, in some cases, you want to select the comma.
When a comma in a simple sentence

The separation of definitions, applications, add-ons and circumstances



The definition of separate by commas if it is near the personal pronoun: "She is beautiful, sat sad". Also, commas are placed, if the definition behind the word is defined: "the Sky, bright and majestic, smiled at the sun." If the definition is before the modified word and has a value of circumstances, a comma is also needed: "Rejected by all, he was standing behind the house".

The application needs to be commas if it is at the personal pronouns: "We, the cooks, believe...". It also ring-fenced, if there is after the name of its own: "Anna, the hostess, left to sit". If the application has the words "even", "e.g.", "i.e.", "or", "especially", "name", a comma is put: "the Few who loved him, especially me."

The addition of the preposition "except", "besides", "except", "over", are distinguished by commas: "No one, including Theodore, was not sorry Anna". Stand out in a simple sentence the circumstances with clarifying meaning: "He left us here, on the beach near the old pier. If the circumstance is in possession of the preposition "despite", it also requires a separation: "Despite the pain, the soldier continued to walk."

Comparative and explanatory momentum



Comparative revolutions in a simple sentence usually are ring-fenced by commas. Comparative turnover unions "as", "exactly", "like", "like" etc. "Laughed like crazy".

Require allocation by commas and explanatory revs with the words "that is", "is", "even", "including", "main", "while". "She's just a friend, not even related". Always are ring-fenced treatment in a simple sentence: "Dear mom, good morning!".

The presence of introductory structures and uniform members



If a simple sentence has introductory design, it requires a selection. It can be a single word: "Probably all died. This may not be the sentence: "the Door, as he said, had been hacked."

The comma in a simple sentence is put between two or more homogeneous members without unions: "the Boys grew up, grew stronger, matured". If they have a recurring Union, comma is also needed: "Neither brother nor sister suspected nothing". The presence with homogeneous members of unions "and", "but", "Yes" also points to the need for a comma: "He was scared, but tried not to show it".

The comma before the Union "as"



The comma before the Union "as" in a simple sentence is, in some cases. If the Union is included in the comparative turn: "came the Prince, beautiful as the moon". If the Union "as" included in the introductory construction: "along the way, as usual, he joked and laughed."

Before the Union "as" a comma if it is at the application with the cause value: "Him as a beloved friend, Anna will never leave in trouble." If the Union is "and": "Animals, like people, have different character." A comma is needed in the expressions "not less than", "nothing like".
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