How is consolidation of the fracture
Fusion (consolidation) fracture develops in 3 ways. When stable fixation of the fracture, a complete mapping of fragments, restored the circulation appears primary fusion, callus is not formed. In case of incomplete matching of the fragments, their relative mobility and circulatory disorders in this area there is a secondary fusion, accompanied by the formation of cartilaginous callus. In case of incomplete matching of bone fragments, their mobility, and poor circulation in the zone of fracture are not spliced.
Consolidation (fusion) fracture occurs by restoring the layers of the bone (endosteum, periosteum, gaversovyh channels), simultaneously absorbed traumatic hematoma formed in the area of damage. The process of bone formation is due to cell multiplication gaversovyh channels, angosta, periosteum and connective tissue. By 5-6 day defect atomtime between the bones is filled with a significant amount of blood vessels, fibroblasts, osteoblasts.
Restored the plot is kind of thickening called callus. Primary callus appears 4-5 weeks, secondary for 5-6 weeks. The next phase, the callus is reconstructed. Its restructuring sometimes lasts up to several years. The osteoblasts resolves the fragments, the ends of the fragments and excess callus.
The timing of fusion of the fractures
In fractures of ribs, phalanges and metacarpal bone consolidation occurs within three weeks in case of clavicle fracture within 4 weeks. Fractures of the metatarsal, tarsal, wrist, shoulder and forearm seam occurs within 2.5 months, lower legs - within 3 months, the bone hips is 4 months, femoral neck - for six months.
In some cases, there is delayed Union of fractures in patients of elderly and senile age, diabetes, beriberi, exhaustion, pregnancy. To local causes include: the multiplicity of fractures, circulatory problems, excessive radiation exposure, a purulent infection of soft tissues. Slow down the formation of callus improper nailing, the high activity of the patient, applying too much of the load at the traction.
Signs of slowing are: abnormal mobility after a maximum period of fusion, the appearance of pain in the area of the fracture. Violations in the process of regeneration of bone tissue can lead to the formation of a false joint. Such a diagnosis with the available x-ray signs, and if there is mobility in the area of fracture after twice the average time of fusion.
Advice 2: What is hematoma
Any damage to vessels caused by their traumatic change or injury, can lead to the formation of hematoma – blood tumor. Around a connective tissue sheath through which it is impossible to reverse the suction of blood streamed. Over time it dissipates. However, in some cases removal surgical intervention is required.
Depending on the localization of the hematoma is subcutaneous, intramuscular, intracranial. As – clotted, infected and festering. Hematoma is formed not at once, because coming from a damaged vessel blood more time remains fluid, and then coagulates. In the surrounding tissue starts to develop a reaction to this process, i.e. there is a kind of inflammation, resulting in the formation of the shell around accumulated blood, preventing its reverse absorption. Thus, there is a blood tumor.
To determine subcutaneous or intramuscular hematoma is not difficult because of its telltale signs are the formation of a hematoma, or bruise, redness, if the affected deep tissue), swelling, pain, local temperature rise, and sometimes a limitation. Hematoma of the internal organs and brain to determine somewhat more complicated, since the symptomatology has significant differences. Most often it is manifested by signs of compression of nearby organs that send alarm signals through strong pain and ill health. Install it for sure is possible only with the help of ultrasound (internal organs) and computed tomography (hemorrhage in the meninges).
Intracranial hematoma can increase in size for several days after the injury, it turns out the so-called traumatic acute subdural hematoma, in which bleeding occurs between the membranes of the brain. In this case, it is able to threaten the victim's life, so often to resolve using emergency methods.
In the treatment of newly formed subcutaneous hematoma use cold, and the next day resolving local heat treatments and strengthening blood vessels with vitamins and pharmaceuticals. Intramuscular hematomas require more prolonged use of physiotherapy, and abdominal - medical monitoring and a completely different treatment given exclusively by the specialist.