Instruction

1

Building volume of the ground part of the structure with the ceiling of the attic is measured by multiplying the sectional area of the horizontally (along the external perimeter of the building, above the basement) for the full height of the building measured from the finished floor level on the ground floor to the top of the insulation on the attic floor. In the absence of overlap is multiplied by the vertical cross section to the length of the building, measured in a perpendicular direction to the cross-sectional area at the level above the ground floor.

2

Turn building volume to the skylights, which serve for the outline of roofs. Also, consider the parameters of a verandah, porch, Bay window and those parts of buildings which increase the useful area. Loggia is subtracted from the total count of the building. No need to specify driveways, porches, and balconies.

3

Note the scale of the technical floors. Calculate the measure of the attic, which is determined by multiplying the same horizontal section at the height from the floor to the top attic floor of the attic. If the height has curves and bumps, impeding measurement, consider the average.

4

Determine the amount of basement and semi-basement and include it in the overall index. If the floors have different area, the building is defined as the sum of the measures of all its parts. Separately estimated parts having different shape or design.

5

Measurement of the external contour is adjusted to the thickness of the cladding and plaster. Total structural volume with basements or sub-level is defined as the sum of the aboveground parts of building.

Useful advice

In the preparation of the statements about the volumes of work use only technical reference books, normative and technical documents. Are counting on the proven schemes that allow to visually get an idea of the settlement system and the sequence of their production.

# Advice 2: How to calculate roof area

Counting square

**of roofs**is not so much an unnecessary whim of the owners home. to acquire as much material as necessary. Before you begin construction, it is better to calculate the total cost of the work. Because a miscalculation can cost you precious time.Instruction

1

Let's say you have a projection (top view)

**of the roof**, and the roof is supposed to make at an angle. In this case, you will help elementary mathematics and more specifically geometry. Divide the entire**area****of the roof**into individual geometric shapes. In most cases the roof "break" into triangles or trapezoids, at least – on rectangles and parallelepipeds. Calculate**square**of each element separately by appropriate formulas.2

Since the roof is uneven and the slope of each shape relative to the earth, every of these figures multiplied by the cosine of the angle of inclination. After that, all the obtained results are added. The result is the required value

**the area****of the roof**.3

Remember – calculate the area

**of the roof**should not be at the edges of the existing structure, but to the eaves. In addition, whatever the roofing material, it is usually put lapped to prevent water from leaking past the roofing. That is, trimming, intersection, and increasing the area of the material here is unavoidable. Therefore, in material it is best to take a small margin of 10-20%. Thus, in the case of more or less simple form**of the roof**, you can do 10%, but if there are many junctions and corners, it is better to increase reserves to 15-20%.Useful advice

It was a complicated variant of the calculation of the area of the roof. If it represents a basic rectangle, beveled at an angle of 30°, then it just need the area of the rectangle multiplied by the cosine of the angle. In this case, the cosine of 30°. After reviewing the theory, we can safely apply the described method in practice.

# Advice 3: How to calculate building volume

The definition of construction volumes, it is important to calculate the cost of the project. Statement on the counting of quantities is the main document when determining the estimated cost of the entire building. So how can one calculate the building volume?

Instruction

1

For compilation of bills of quantities use of normative documents, technical manuals, instructions and other technical documents. The estimates of the works recommended on the proven schemes that visualize the progress of calculations, as well as all the sequence of their production. For this fit certain rules.

2

Building volume of the basement determine by multiplying the cross-sectional area of the basement horizontally at the level of the ground floor, measuring above the cap height from the floor level to the same level floor from the lower floor. If the basement is built inside the building without the walls above it, calculates area (external stroke the walls at the ceiling above the basement.

3

Building volume the upper, terrestrial part of the house with attic ceilings define by multiplying the area of the horizontal cross section of the external border of the structure (including the thickness of the veneer, stucco) in the lower floor above the basement to the full height of the building, measured from the floor level from the ground floor to the top of the insulation on the attic floor.

4

To determine the amount of the ground part of the house without garret overlapping, multiply the area of cross-section vertical to the length of the building, which is measure between the outer surfaces of the opposite end walls perpendicular to the cross-sectional area at the level of the ground floor above the basement. The cross-sectional area calculate the perimeter on the outer surface of the walls, and given the upper contours of the roof and the floor level from the ground floor.

5

If the building has projecting parts and niches, in the measurement of the cross section are not taken into account. If the floors have a different area, then the volume of the building define as the sum of its parts. In addition, we expect the volume of the individual parts of the building, if they are significantly different in form. In such cases, the delimiting wall consider the part which it corresponds in design or height.

6

Building capacity building with basement define as the sum of the volumes of the basement and ground parts.

7

Note that the volume verandas, Bay Windows and other parts that increase the useful volume must be calculated separately and included in total volume. Do not turn on only in the building volume the volume of porches and open balconies.

# Advice 4: How to calculate the amount of work

Job is to perform any actions aimed at the development and benefit of civilization. If we talk about the construction, for the proper organization of production is necessary to calculate the volume of work. That later will be incorporated in the final cost to the consumer. How do you do it?

Instruction

1

Calculate the volume of works in construction. Today it is the largest amount. Review of project materials and place them in a convenient order for quick search. Divide the documentation into groups separately for underground and surface.

2

Calculate the volumes of work in a specific order: first count for openings in the outer walls, then to internal, then the work of the walls, the Foundation, any earthworks, floors, all ceilings, roof, staircases, balconies, various overhangs and porch. Proceed to the estimates of works internal and external decoration.

3

Use the specifications on the various materials used: concrete, wood, electrical, etc. in Other words, determine the rate of flow in appropriate units: cubic metres, square, linear, etc.

4

Calculate each of the works on the basis of the market value of one unit. For example, painting one square meter or strip per meter of cable. Consider the imposition of double and triple layers when working with finishing materials.

5

Calculate the volume of construction works by using special computer programs, for example, CADWizard that clearly and accurately make an estimate. Select a drawing, select it and the program will count the entire amount of work in this area. Set real scale, putting only the value of one element of the drawing, for example, walls.

6

Calculate the amount of mechanical work not related to construction. Here, everything is easier. Select the basis for any piece of work (volume). Take it as a unit, for example, loading and unloading of one machine, the number pasted up leaflets, the production of one part, etc. Guide the count of such units, where the work is completely done.

7

Determine the amount of mental work. First, clearly set goals, as detailed as possible. Then at the end of the allotted time, go through the points whose objectives are fulfilled. Determine the percentage amount of work performed to the task. Please note that some items may be more labor-intensive, and therefore require more time.