You will need
- - refer to a neurologist;
- - get directions to the required examinations.
Intracranial pressure can be measured in several ways, but the most reliable result is obtained by carrying out the puncture. The doctor inserts the spinal canal or ventricles of the brain and connects the needle gauge. The pressure is measured in millimeters of water column. If the patient is in a horizontal position, and the only way they are punctured, the normal results are considered the indicators from 60 to 200. But some experts are of the opinion that good results should be considered indicators from 80 to 140. The pressure level depends on the General physical condition of the person and the availability of current chronic diseases. The puncture is performed in a hospital, after admission and patient preparation for the examination.
All other research methods cannot give reliable results at 100% and allow you to define a pressure approximately by circumstantial evidence, but, nevertheless, are used most frequently, rather than puncture.
The neurosonography – ultrasound is carried out only in the examination of children, as in adults, ultrasound can not give any results due to the density of the bones of the skull. In babies, the fontanel is not yet closed, that allows to get indirect results. Neurosonography helps to determine the size of the ventricles and to judge of the increased intracranial pressure by the fact that the ventricles are enlarged.
If the fontanel is closed, is computer or magnetic-resonant tomography. The same survey is assigned and adult patients. But the imaging is costly and unsafe method of examination, so it is performed only in the case if there are reasonable grounds to suspect increased intracranial pressure.
You can also get directions to the hardware echoencephalography. When the survey is possible to obtain indirect signs of increased intracranial pressure. This is determined by the pulsation of the vessels, but the result is the only reason for suspicion, but does not give guaranteed results.
From the foregoing it can be concluded that despite the fact that medicine is moving forward, but reliable method of obtaining results, the level of intracranial pressure is the only puncture.
Advice 2 : How to determine cranial pressure
Intracranial hypertension is an indicator of the pressure on the brain cerebrospinal fluid called cerebrospinal fluid that protects the brain from damage in case of shock and helps to remove products of metabolism. Intracranial pressure during the day may slightly fluctuate, this is normal and treatment is not needed. However, as a result of brain injury, brain tumor, hydrocephalus, meningitis, aneurysm it is a significant improvement.
You will need
- - cerebrospinal puncture;
- - puncture of jeludockove of the brain;
- - consultation of the ophthalmologist;
- - Ultrasound of the brain;
Increase cranial pressure accompanied by headache, severe nausea and vomiting, double vision and the emergence of flies in the eyes, weakness and fatigability. In addition, blood pressure becomes unstable, there is low-grade fever, etc., For confirmation of the signs of intracranial hypertension are diagnosed. There are direct and indirect methods of determining pressure. Increased intracranial pressure is necessarily accompanied by characteristic changes that are clearly visible during computer tomography, ultrasound of the brain, etc.
Direct methods for determining pressure include lumbar puncture cerebrospinal and brain ventricles. The procedures are quite complex and are carried out only according to strict indications when other diagnostics are ineffective.
All other diagnostic methods include indirect methods of determining intracranial pressure. It is recommended that a fundus examination by a retinal specialist. Swelling of the optic disc and dilated veins of the retina of both eyes are signs that clearly indicate an increase in cranial pressure and provide a basis for further tests.
CT and magnetic resonance imaging show changes resulting from cranial hypertension is the thinning of brain tissue, increase the width of the ventricles of the brain, etc. To increase the accuracy of diagnosis before the procedure is introduced into the bloodstream of a special contrast agent that allows to clearly observe the blood vessels of the brain that are invisible in conventional imaging.
Electroencephalography allows to determine the bioelectric activity of the brain. Violation by a specialist of indicators serves as an indirect sign of intracranial hypertension.
Cerebral ultrasound to determine cranial hypertension is carried out only in children, not yet closed Fontanelle. Repeated examination of the width of the ventricles of the brain characterizes the changes in this index and is an indirect sign of cranial pressure, possibly hydrocephalus.
Increased ICP requires urgent action, ranging from medical treatment to surgical intervention. The basis for emergency neurosurgical operation may be a skull fracture, epidural hematoma, or bleeding in the brain.
Advice 3 : How to measure intracranial pressure
Pressing headache, aggravated by weather changes and atmospheric pressure may indicate increased intracranial pressure. If pharmaceuticals do not help to relieve chronic headaches, you should think about contacting the neurologist, to get the direction of the survey.
You will need
- medical policy of obligatory insurance;
- - passport;
- - the direction of the survey.
To measure intracranial pressure using a special pressure gauge. The doctor inserts the spinal canal or ventricles of the brain, thin needle. The pressure gauge begins to record the pressure and displays it in millimeters of mercury.
If, during the puncture you are in a horizontal position, indicators from 60 to 200 would be considered the norm. However, some experts argue that the rule should include a pressure from 80 to 140 millimeters of mercury. The puncture is performed in the hospital where the patient hospitalityat the day before.
Children to measure intracranial pressure conducting neurosonography. The most reliable results can be obtained in babies first year of life, when the Fontanelle was not quite closed. Indirect results about the increase of the ventricles give the doctor a reason to judge of the increased intracranial pressure. After the closure of the fontanel, this method is ineffective.
Magnetic resonance or computed tomography is performed in all patients. The purpose for this type of survey can be obtained only if a doctor has a strong suspicion that the pressure really increased and causes systematic headaches and poor health.
Hardware echoencephalography method, which is indirectly possible to judge the increased intracranial pressure. For pulsation and vascular tone the doctor suspects the presence of increased intracranial pressure. But on the basis of this examination to put a definite diagnosis impossible.
Despite the fact that medicine has leaped forward, to measure intracranial pressure is still quite difficult and the only reliable method is needling.