Advice 1: How to determine polarity of electrolytic capacitor

Electrolytic capacitor is an unusual electronic component that combines the properties of a passive element and a semiconductor device. Unlike a conventional capacitor, it is a polar element.
How to determine polarity of electrolytic capacitor
Instruction
1
Electrolytic capacitors have domestic production, the findings of which are arranged radially or axially, to determine the polarity of the way the plus sign located on the body. One of the conclusions is closer to where it is located, is positive. Similarly marked and some of the old capacitors in the Czech Republic.
2
Capacitors coaxial design where the housing is designed for connection to the chassis; usually designed for use in filters, the anode voltage of devices formed on the lamps. Since it is positive, negative lining them in most cases placed on the body and zero on the Central contact. But to this rule there may be exceptions, so in case of any doubt look at the unit marking (marking of plus or minus sign) or, if not, check the polarity in the manner described below.
3
A special case occurs when testing electrolytic capacitors of the type K50-16. Such a device has a plastic bottom, and marking the polarity of charge placed on it. Sometimes the signs of plus and minus buttons located in such a way that insights is passing right through their centers.
4
Capacitor legacy THAT the uninitiated may assume the diode. Usually the polarity on his body indicated in the way described in step 1. In the absence of labeling know that the conclusion is a thickening of the body, is connected to the positive electrode. In any case, do not disassemble these capacitors - they contain toxic substances!
5
The polarity of modern electrolytic capacitors are imported, regardless of their design, define a band near the negative terminal. It is applied in a color contrasting to the color of the body, and is intermittent, i.e., as it consists of minuses.
6
To determine the polarity of the capacitor are not marked, assemble the circuit consisting of a DC voltage source of several volts, a resistor of one kilo Ohm and the ammeter connected in series. Fully discharge the device, and only then turn to the circuit. After full charge read the readings. Then disconnect the capacitor from the circuit, again fully discharge turn on circuit, wait for full charge and read the new evidence. Compare them with the previous one. When connected in the correct polarity leakage is much smaller.
Note
Fully discharge the capacitor before checking and touching his conclusions. When you build or repair structures always install the device only in the correct polarity, otherwise disconnect.

Advice 2: How to determine the polarity of the battery

In the automobile sold of lead-acid batteries direct (they are all domestic cars) and reverse polarity (installed on some machines of foreign production). Before buying a battery, it is necessary to accurately determine its polarity.
How to determine the polarity of the battery
You will need
  • Voltmeter
Instruction
1
The service life of any battery is limited and is usually not more than five years. After the allotted time, there comes a time replacement unit. And if owners of cars of a domestic production the problem is to select the appropriate battery capacity and give preference to a particular brand, then the owners of imported cars need to find out before purchasing the polarity of the battery.
2
To achieve this task, the battery is removed from the battery socket and is positioned in such a way that by visual inspection from above its terminals must be at the bottom. Please note that one of them is a little thinner than the other (it is negative).
3
If the negative terminal is located on the accumulator on the left (bottom), the battery reverse polarity.
4
In cases where a thinner terminal on the right battery polarity.
5
To finally verify the correctness of the polarity of the battery, reconnect the voltmeter. The red probe of the device removes the voltage from the large terminal and the black thin. The reading on the scale without the minus sign confirms the studied parameters of the battery.
Note
Install the battery by improper polarity in the car face the fact that its terminals are not be able to attach the cables.

Advice 3: How to determine the polarity of the diode

Any diode changes its conductivity depending on the polarity of the applied voltage. The location of the electrodes on his body indicated not always. If labelling is missing, to determine which electrode is connected to what pin, you can own.
How to determine the polarity of the diode
Instruction
1
First, determine the polarity of the voltage on the probes that the measuring device you use. If he is rich, put it in the mode of the ohmmeter. Take any diode on the body which indicated the location of the electrodes. This designation of "triangle" corresponds to the anode, and "strip" the cathode. Try to connect the probes to the diode in different polarities. If it conducts current, then the probe to the positive potential connected to the anode and negative to cathode. Remember that the polarity in the mode of measurement of resistance to pointer instruments may differ from that which is provided for measuring voltage and current. But on the digital devices it is usually the same in all modes, but to check still won't hurt.
2
If checked the vacuum diode with direct heat, first locate it a combination of pins, between which the current flows regardless of the polarity of connection of the measuring device. This - the filament is the cathode. Through the directory, find the rated filament voltage of the diode. Served on the filament DC voltage corresponding value. The probe of the device, which is a negative potential, connect to one of the pins of the filament, and the positive probe touching turns to the rest of the insights of the lamp. Upon discovering the pin, when you touch the probe to which displayed resistance, lesser infinity, conclude that it is the anode. Powerful vacuum diodes with direct heat (rectifier tubes) can have two anode.
3
Vacuum diode with indirect heat heater insulated from the cathode. Finding him, sue him alternating voltage, the effective value of which is equal to the specified reference. Then among the other insights find the two between which at a certain polarity passes current. The one that is connected to the test lead with the positive potential, the anode is opposite the cathode. Remember that a vacuum diode with indirect heat have two of the anode, and some two cathodes.
4
A semiconductor diode has only two pins. Accordingly, the device to be connected to only one of two ways. Find a element position at which the current is passed through it. Test lead with the positive potential will be connected to the anode and negative to cathode.

Advice 4: How to determine the polarity dynamics

At first glance, the labeling on the speaker polarity has no meaning, since it is supplied to the AC voltage. But when the speaker system a few drivers, you must include them in phase. Denoted on the findings of the head of such polarity, in which the diffuser is moving forward.
How to determine the polarity dynamics
Instruction
1
Fabricate to check speakers special sampler. To do this, take an ordinary pocket lamp based on incandescent bulbs. Remove the switch and instead connect the two probes. They have to be isolated pens, as in the time of the off voltage at the terminals of the head there is a voltage of self-induction. Check the polarity of the voltage across the probes with a test voltmeter. Coat them with the appropriate designation. Make sure that if the probes are close, the light bulb glows.
2
Turn off the amplifier and all stereocomplex (including and from the socket). Disconnect both output drivers from other circuits to the speaker. Connect the probes to the terminals head without touching neither the last nor the metal parts of the probes. At this point, look carefully at the diffuser. If it moves outwards, and when you disable the interior, the polarity is correct. If the reverse is the case, change the polarity connection of the test leads, then repeat the test. Then mark on the frame the dynamic head of a black permanent marker polaritycorresponding to the polarity of the probes.
3
Carry out the same operation in relation to the other speakers within one speaker system. Regardless of how they are connected (directly or through crossover), connect them in-phase so that the red terminal on the rear of the column was consistent with the positive findings of the heads.
4
Also check and, if necessary, readjust the second speaker system. Closing the housing of both speakers, check that they are connected to the amplifier. On the cable, which is such a compound, there are special red labels. In all cases the conductor labeled connect to red terminal, and conductor no label - black.
5
Turn on stereocomplex. Compare its sound to that which occurred prior to alteration.

Advice 5: How to determine polarity of the speakers

That is why, to mark the polarity on the speaker stereo? Because it is applied alternating voltage. However, if the acoustic heads are several, to enable them have in-phase. On the findings of a particular head indicate the value of polarity, in which the diffuser is moved in the forward direction.
How to determine polarity of the speakers
You will need
  • - a flashlight with an incandescent lamp;
  • - test leads with insulated handles;
  • - permanent marker;
  • - voltmeter.
Instruction
1
To determine the polarity of dynamics, make the device-probe. Take a regular flashlight with incandescent bulb. Disconnect switch, which will need to connect two probes. Leads must be with insulated handles, because when the voltage is switched off, on the findings of the head appears a voltage of self-induction.
2
With a test voltmeter to check the polarity on the probes, then the probes apply to the appropriate designation. When the probes are pulled, the light should illuminate.
3
Disconnect the amplifier and the speaker system, unplug the power cord from the outlet. Then disconnect from the other circuits of the system insights to the dynamic head. Next, connect both probes to the terminals head, avoiding the touch of the conclusions and metal parts of the probes themselves. And diffuser look carefully. If it moves when connecting outside and inside – when you turn off, then the polarity is correct. If the picture is reversed, reverse the polarity of the probes, and then repeat the process.
4
On the frame heads indicate the polarity, preferably with an indelible marker, which corresponds to the polarity of the probes.
5
Repeat the same operations for the rest of the speaker system. And no matter via the crossover they are connected or directly, you should connect them in-phase so that the positive findings of the head were consistent with contact of red color on the rear of the actual column.
6
Check and readjust, if necessary, a second acoustic system. Check by closing the housing of two columns, whether they were connected to the amplifier. For performing such a connection cable, you may notice red marks. In any case, the conductor labeled should be connected to the terminal marked red and the one with no label – to terminal black.
7
Turn on the stereo and compare the sound that it makes now, with the sound that it made before your intervention.

Advice 6: Definition of personality type by favorite color

Doctors and psycho-physiologists have long paid attention to the fact that a particular color is the same effect on all people. For example, red has a stimulating effect, unsettling purple, blue calming, and green creates a sense of stability in life.
Definition of personality type by favorite color

The most famous expert who has been studying the effects of colors on the mental state of people Max Luscher. He identified four psycho people based on their color preferences.

Color personality types

Red psycho

People who prefer the red, very active, they can be compared with the "eternal engine". They usually are constantly in the excitement and love that state. In the result of the stress they often feel nervous exhaustion and irritation.

Yellow psycho

People of this type is very important in their personal freedom and opportunities for self-actualization. They love experiments, let us not fear changes in life. Because of their independence they often feel insufficiently loved and lost.

Blue psycho

For these people very important in my life is the relaxed pace of life, they love the peace and tranquility. Due to the fact that they prefer "straight existence", without surprises and unplanned actions, these people are often bored and feel alienated being around people who love them.

Green psycho

People of this temperament are fond of to manage the situation and themselves. They calculate in advance the developments, you know, what they want and they are ready to give. Spontaneity is not included in the list of their qualities. For these people it is important how they look in the eyes of others and they will use this opportunity to raise their status.

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