Advice 1: What are the natural indicators can be used to determine directions

Define cardinal directions by the sun, stars, moon, moss, trees. Such methods of orientation may be useful in Hiking, if you have no map compass or gps.
In order to navigate the terrain, you must be able to determine directions without the use of maps, compasses and navigation instruments. Orienteering map and compass is not difficult, however, there are times when people go camping and do not take a compass with a map and in the gps out of batteries. Not to get lost in the woods, you need to be able to define cardinal directions by the sun, stars, moss, trees, etc.

Orientation to the sun and stars

The sun can be used as a reference point, but to do this you need to know the exact time. The sun moves across the sky from East to West. However, it is worth to note that in the winter it rises closer to the South-East and sets in the South-Western direction.

In the summer you can navigate in the following way: if at noon to get back to the sun, to your left is West and right is East. In winter the noon sun is in the South-East, and if you stand back to him on the left is the South-West. During the spring and autumn the sun is in the South-East at about 10:00 o'clock.

At night, when orientation to the sun is impossible, the direction of the cardinal points can be determined by the North star, part of the constellation URSA Minor. First we need to find the constellation URSA major resembling a dipper with a handle. On the territory of Russia "bucket" can be seen at any time of the year, except in southern regions, where the autumn dipper descends toward the horizon.

If using the two outer stars that form the right wall of the dipper (opposite the handle of the "dipper") to hold an imaginary straight line, it will point to the North star. Length straight is about five times greater than the distance between the two stars, which were conducted through line. The direction of the line towards the North pole coincides with the North direction.

Orientation to local characteristics

Moss grows mostly on the North side of tree trunks, and lichens grow on the North side of rocks and stones. However, these signs do not always guarantee one hundred percent accuracy to the cardinal directions, so for reliability it is desirable to use method of orientation by moss and lichens, together with other ways. For example, you can pay attention to the ant hills — most often they are located on the South side near the tree trunks and stumps.

Early spring South direction can be identified by the melted snow. Side slopes, hills and boulders, which faces South and is warmed by the rays of the sun more than the North. So on the South side the snow is melting more intense.

Advice 2: How to identify in the woods directions

Going into nature, into the forest for berries or mushrooms, don't forget a compass and a map. But without them, do not despair and panic, there are a lot of people take with the help of which you can identify by the light and therefore Orient.
How to identify in the woods directions
You will need
  • - compass;
  • watch.
If you have a compass, going into the forest, set it. Step away from the road 50-100 metres, turn in the direction where you want to go back. Compass shake lightly and place on the palm. Align the compass arrow marked "North" on the dial. View the value of a degree in your field. This will be your guide. When you decide to move back, just align the arrow with the North and turn back face. Now find the vector of its road and go. Adjust your course from time to time by repeating the entire procedure.
Hourly also possible to determine the sides of light. Keep them in the palm of your hand, point the hour hand at the sun. Divide in half the angle between the figure 1 and the hour hand is the direction South. Accordingly, the opposite side will be North, the one that is on the right hand East and the left West. Clock set at local time.
Look at the plants in the forest, it is a kind of natural compass. Look for the dark strip moss on tree trunks – it is on the North side. It is formed because the crust dries out from the sun on the South side, and moss grows on the opposite where there is moisture. In hot weather, on the trunks of firs and pines stands resin, of course, more in the South, where the sun heats the tree.
Watch the butterflies at rest they fold their wings to the sun warmed them. When you move the lights, the insects also turn. On the morning of the folded wings of a butterfly directed to the East, noon is to the South, in the evening – to the West.
In search of berries pay attention to which side of the stumps and bumps the fruit is more mellow and bright. This is the South. On the meadow - green dossevi flank berries will point you North. Mushrooms and thick moss grow better from the North side.
Find forest anthill. Its South side is more gentle than the North. Ants build their settlements near the tree with the side of the South. In the spring try to navigate in the snow. It melts faster on the South side. But in the ravines, pits, hollows the snow melts better with the North, because the sun's rays do not fall on the opposite side of the recess.
In the night sky, identify the North star – it is always stationary and is located in the North in the constellation URSA major.
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