Advice 1: What are the natural indicators can be used to determine directions

Define cardinal directions by the sun, stars, moon, moss, trees. Such methods of orientation may be useful in Hiking, if you have no map compass or gps.
Orienteering
In order to navigate the terrain, you must be able to determine directions without the use of maps, compasses and navigation instruments. Orienteering map and compass is not difficult, however, there are times when people go camping and do not take a compass with a map and in the gps out of batteries. Not to get lost in the woods, you need to be able to define cardinal directions by the sun, stars, moss, trees, etc.

Orientation to the sun and stars



The sun can be used as a reference point, but to do this you need to know the exact time. The sun moves across the sky from East to West. However, it is worth to note that in the winter it rises closer to the South-East and sets in the South-Western direction.

In the summer you can navigate in the following way: if at noon to get back to the sun, to your left is West and right is East. In winter the noon sun is in the South-East, and if you stand back to him on the left is the South-West. During the spring and autumn the sun is in the South-East at about 10:00 o'clock.

At night, when orientation to the sun is impossible, the direction of the cardinal points can be determined by the North star, part of the constellation URSA Minor. First we need to find the constellation URSA major resembling a dipper with a handle. On the territory of Russia "bucket" can be seen at any time of the year, except in southern regions, where the autumn dipper descends toward the horizon.

If using the two outer stars that form the right wall of the dipper (opposite the handle of the "dipper") to hold an imaginary straight line, it will point to the North star. Length straight is about five times greater than the distance between the two stars, which were conducted through line. The direction of the line towards the North pole coincides with the North direction.

Orientation to local characteristics



Moss grows mostly on the North side of tree trunks, and lichens grow on the North side of rocks and stones. However, these signs do not always guarantee one hundred percent accuracy to the cardinal directions, so for reliability it is desirable to use method of orientation by moss and lichens, together with other ways. For example, you can pay attention to the ant hills — most often they are located on the South side near the tree trunks and stumps.

Early spring South direction can be identified by the melted snow. Side slopes, hills and boulders, which faces South and is warmed by the rays of the sun more than the North. So on the South side the snow is melting more intense.

Advice 2: How to determine cardinal directions on the clock

In order to navigate the terrain, you first need to determinewhich direction are the parties of light. If you have no compass, on a Sunny day or moonlit night in high latitudes, it can replace the wrist watch with hands.
How to determine cardinal directions on the clock
Instruction
1
To determine the side light on the o'clock, point the hour hand at the sun. For greater accuracy, and can focus on the shadows of the vertically standing object, a tree, a pole, plumb. Set the arrow parallel to this shadow.
2
Taking into account summer and daylight saving time in Russia the sun is in the South at 14 hours in summer and 13 hours in winter. Mentally divide in half the angle between the hour hand and the direction to numbers 2 or 1, depending on the time of year is the bisector indicate the direction to the South. This method is more accurate, the farther from the equator. In the mid-latitudes during summer, the error of this method can reach 20 degrees. In the southern hemisphere in a manner determined by the direction of the North.
3
If you do not have watches with hands, the dial can be drawn as precisely as possible trying to break it down into sectors in the upper right quadrant. Instead of a clockwise swipe from the direction of the sun.
4
To determine the location of the parties to the lights at night, you first need to calculate where should be the sun. To do this, visualize the full moon, spend its radius and divide it into 6 parts. Look at the actual Crescent moon and count how many of these parts may be contained in the visible part of the lunar disk. The number remember.
5
Note by the clock the exact time. If the moon is waning (the sickle resembles the letter S – "old") time of observation add to the resulting number, if it is moving take. You have a new number. Mark it on the watch dial and point the mark on the moon. Then mentally draw an angle, one side of which is the direction to the moon and the other the number 2 or summer 1 in winter, and divide it in half in the same way as when navigating by the sun. The bisector will point in the direction South.
Note
In determining the cardinal hold the watch horizontally.
Useful advice
To determine the moon is increasing or decreasing, you can use simple tips: if the Crescent moon resembles the letter C – the moon is decreasing, "old". If the Crescent moon is to mentally add a vertical bar, and then he will look like the letter P – the moon growing "young".

Advice 3: How to identify in the woods directions

Going into nature, into the forest for berries or mushrooms, don't forget a compass and a map. But without them, do not despair and panic, there are a lot of people take with the help of which you can identify by the light and therefore Orient.
How to identify in the woods directions
You will need
  • - compass;
  • watch.
Instruction
1
If you have a compass, going into the forest, set it. Step away from the road 50-100 metres, turn in the direction where you want to go back. Compass shake lightly and place on the palm. Align the compass arrow marked "North" on the dial. View the value of a degree in your field. This will be your guide. When you decide to move back, just align the arrow with the North and turn back face. Now find the vector of its road and go. Adjust your course from time to time by repeating the entire procedure.
2
Hourly also possible to determine the sides of light. Keep them in the palm of your hand, point the hour hand at the sun. Divide in half the angle between the figure 1 and the hour hand is the direction South. Accordingly, the opposite side will be North, the one that is on the right hand East and the left West. Clock set at local time.
3
Look at the plants in the forest, it is a kind of natural compass. Look for the dark strip moss on tree trunks – it is on the North side. It is formed because the crust dries out from the sun on the South side, and moss grows on the opposite where there is moisture. In hot weather, on the trunks of firs and pines stands resin, of course, more in the South, where the sun heats the tree.
4
Watch the butterflies at rest they fold their wings to the sun warmed them. When you move the lights, the insects also turn. On the morning of the folded wings of a butterfly directed to the East, noon is to the South, in the evening – to the West.
5
In search of berries pay attention to which side of the stumps and bumps the fruit is more mellow and bright. This is the South. On the meadow - green dossevi flank berries will point you North. Mushrooms and thick moss grow better from the North side.
6
Find forest anthill. Its South side is more gentle than the North. Ants build their settlements near the tree with the side of the South. In the spring try to navigate in the snow. It melts faster on the South side. But in the ravines, pits, hollows the snow melts better with the North, because the sun's rays do not fall on the opposite side of the recess.
7
In the night sky, identify the North star – it is always stationary and is located in the North in the constellation URSA major.

Advice 4: How to define cardinal directions by the sun

Modern navigation devices allow you to accurately navigate the terrain. However, they have one significant drawback: they require energy sources. When you are required to look for other ways to determine its location is not so rare. One of the most common ways is the orientation of the sun.
How to define cardinal directions by the sun
You will need
  • - mechanical or Electromechanical watch.
  • - map of the area.
Instruction
1
Going camping, bring the usual clock arrow. Better if they are mechanical, because they do not depend on batteries. You can use Electromechanical in a waterproof case. Before you embark on a journey to change their battery. To verify the standard is necessary in any case.
2
Locate location of any perceptible object. It can be a train station, a large building, pond, etc., the Object must be marked on the map.
3
Position the dial so that the hour hand pointed to the sun. Being in a country where the common time more or less corresponds to the astronomical mentally continue the line from the center of the dial to the figure 12. If it happens in Russia, where the afternoon begins 2 hours later than it should be at a reasonable time, conduct a mental line in the direction of figure 2. It happened because long ago it was established daylight savings time when added to an astronomical hour. In addition, after the termination of the transfer time is left of summer, which added another hour.
4
The angle between the hour hand and the direction to the corresponding number, divide in half. This will be the direction South. Knowing your location relative to this part of the lights, define the other.
5
Become South face. Behind you, of course, would be the North. On the left is West and right is East. So side lights are located on a standard printed map.
6
Put a map of the area so defined by the clock direction to the South coincided with the appropriate direction on the map. Find the next point on your route. It must be as noticeable, and route to it route. On rough terrain they rarely get to from one point to another could be reached in a straight line. You will have to bypass some obstacles. That's why you need to control your position on every reference point.
7
Directions you can determine without mechanical watches. They are used only as a device for determining time. At noon on astronomical time, stand with your back to the sun. Your shadow will show you the North direction in the Northern hemisphere. In the South it's the opposite.
Note
Note that the Meridian line that divides the angle between the hour hand and the direction to 12 o'clock in half, may be on either side of 12 o'clock depending on the time of day.
Useful advice
The position of the cardinal points of the sun can be determined another time. At 6 a.m. on astronomical time, it is in the East, 9 in the South — East, 12 South, 15 in the South-West, and 18 in the West. The method of orientation by sun and hours are fairly accurate, but possibly combine it with others. If there are trees nearby, pay attention to which side they are covered with moss. This is the North side. The same resin from coniferous trees in hot weather more liberally on the South side. The South side is often an anthill.

Advice 5: What kind of moss grows best on the rocks

Moss can grow in various environments and locations – at home, in the trees, in the garden, on the rocks. Moss has a rich structure and does not have any known pests or diseases. Besides, it is unpretentious. Many people grow the moss on the stones on your site yourself.
What kind of moss grows best on the rocks

What kind of moss it is best to choose to grow on the rocks



Some people like how they look in their garden stones covered with moss. People even grow moss on their own. The best way to grow on the rocks like this moss, as Lunularia, Astilba, Spagna, the Bleeding heart, Geyhera, Solomon's seal and Hosta. No worse than grow on rocks Javanese, and Bokoplavy Cormophyte mosses. All of these types of moss grow in different conditions. Some plants like shade while others prefer Sunny places. But these types of moss have one thing in common - they all grow well in flowerbeds and rocks. The most popular among other types of uses sphagnum moss. It is easy to get in the woods and plant at home. However, you can take any moss. In order to grow it at Cannes, you need to add in Oh the yogurt and sugar. Then this mixture needs to stand for seven hours, after which it was poured onto the stones. To the moss in the stone is ingrained, it is necessary for three weeks well fill it with water. In addition, you can purchase moss in a flower shop. Then he carefully put near the stone. After a while the plant will absorb the stone. Also you can plant Sedum, which resembles a moss. He looks at the stones very attractive.

Moss on the stone as part of the scenery garden plot



In garden plots, very often the architectural elements of the scenery are beautifully covered with moss. Very often garden sculptures decorated with moss. Such elements can be covered with moss as a whole, and only in some certain areas. Usually moss is used in garden design in retro style. Moss in this case it helps to give the sculpture the appearance of antiquity. Also, of course, the moss looks in the Japanese garden. In the modern landscape of mosses soften the geometric rough texture concrete elements. Often moss is used for the attractiveness of the stone garden paths. This technique is used not only in traditional but in the modern landscape.

How to grow moss on stone



Stone are concrete, masonry surfaces and pottery ceramics. To grow moss on this basis, it is better to scrape off the material with mossy stones. Although you can use a dry natural moss. Best moss to take root on the porous stone surfaces or rough texture. To do this, make a pasty mixture according to the recipe, which would require two cups of yogurt or natural yogurt and about a Cup of chopped moss. These components need to be mixed. In the end, the consistency of the mixture should be like cream. The mixture is applied to the areas of the stone where it will have to grow moss. This mixture smeared on the rock with your hand or a soft brush. The rate of development of the moss on a stone surface may be different. But after about six weeks, will be seen exactly – caught the moss on the rock.
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