Dermatologists examine moles with a special device. It's called a Dermatoscope. It is a powerful lens with a backlight, which allows under high magnification to examine the education on the human skin. Some of Dermatoscope is a function of the camera allows you to capture the mole.
The first sign of malignancy is the asymmetry of the mole. If you visually divide your mole into two equal parts, it should be completely symmetrical. The two halves must be the same. The suspected formations right and left halves are not symmetrical. For example, on one half of the moles can be protrusions or depressions. The exception to the rule are congenital birthmarks, which can be asymmetric.
The second sign of malignancy irregular and indistinct edge. Normal mole should have a clear and smooth border. It must be distinguished from normal skin. If the edge of the education is impossible to pinpoint, if it is defocused gradually merges with the normal skin or a border that looks corroded, it should alert the specialist.
The third sign of malignancy - the uneven color of the moles. Normal mole should be uniformly colored. If there are blotches, stripes, dots, areas darker or lighter color, is a bad prognostic sign. Often the uneven coloration can be determined by eye. And patients come to the dermatologist, presenting these complaints.
The fourth sign of malignancy is the large size of the moles. A large mole is more than 6 millimeters. Exceptions to the rule - a congenital birthmark which can be very large.
Dynamics is the change of size, color, the edges of the moles over time. For example, if 6 months ago the size of the formation was 5 mm, and now the mole had increased to 7 millimeters, it should alert you. To monitor the dynamics is recommended to take pictures of moles. Even better to apply to the formation of a ruler and a picture on the background millimetric scale. Changes in moles over time - one of the most important diagnostic signs.
Thus, cancerous mole looks like a asymmetrical formation of a large size with fuzzy edges and multicolored patches, changing in dynamics. Only a doctor can make a conclusion about the danger of a particular nevus to health. Suspicious moles can be removed surgically, by laser or liquid nitrogen. Not necessary to remove moles or to pull a thread.
If moles grow hair, it is considered benign.
To make it easier to remember the signs of malignancy, remember the acronym "Akord", where "A" - asymmetry, "K" - edge, "" color, "P" and "D" - dynamics.
Advice 2: How to distinguish benign from malignant tumors
Cancer is one of the most serious diseases of our time. But fortunately for many people, not every tumor can be considered cancerous i.e. malignant. Among them are benign. How to distinguish one from the other?
First, understand the difference between benign and malignant tumors. In the first case, the tumor has no common adverse effects on the human body and can only in some situations to compress the individual organs. In the second case, the tumor may metastasize, that is spread to neighboring organs and cause death from the disease.
In the case of suspected tumor in the breast gently touch her hands. Benign growths, for example, cysts usually soft to the touch, and also have properties vary in size depending on the day of the menstrual cycle. Examination of the breast in the case of benign tumors is usually painless. At the same time, cancers are usually firm to the touch, and often accompanied by changes in the lymph nodes.
To check the skin for changes carefully consider it. If you find a mole that has changed color, increased in size, and its edge has become uneven, there is the risk of cancer in this place. Soreness can also indicate the risk of tumors, and the speed of its development.
To determine the properties of internal tumors pay attention to the symptoms. The presence of blood in the urine, various types of bleeding can in some cases indicate a malignant tumor.
Contact your doctor even if you have all the criteria sure that you have developed a relatively safe benign tumor. First, your assessment would be inaccurate, since it is not backed up by any tests, no ultrasound, no biopsy. Second, even harmless tumors tend to periodically reborn. Therefore, even such a tumor your doctor may recommend to remove or to treat with special preparations.
Advice 3: Why the birthmark is red
Nevus, or melanoma, is the accumulation of the skin pigment melanin. Most moles appear in a person after birth, during the first year of life. Their number depends directly on such an important gland of the human pituitary gland.
The mechanism of formation of moles and birthmarks
The human pituitary gland produces melanotropic hormone that has a direct impact on the number of moles on the body. A large part of the spots appear in the first year of a child's life, but moles can be formed and in the process of life under the influence of hormonal changes in the body, which proves the relationship of nevi with hormonal activity of the human body. In such periods of life, as puberty in adolescents, pregnancy in women, changes in hormonal status during menopause men and women, the formation of new moles.
Moles in science it is accepted to name the nevi.
In principle, birthmarks are small, not varying with time, is absolutely not pose any threat to humans. Much more attention should be paid to moles large or medium size.
There are situations when moles begin to change, changing their shape, color, mole can suddenly blush. From a medical point of view, the nevus is a benign tumor. But it is known that a benign tumor can degenerate into malignant. Therefore, the cause of sudden redness of moles can be cancer that has the name "melanoma".
Melanoma is a malignancy that arises from benign nevus and late presentation for medical care may give multiple metastases in different organs and systems, which makes the prognosis of patient is poor.
Seek medical advice you need at the first suspicion that a mole changes color or shape.
Red mole is a sign of inflammation of adjacent tissues. The inflammatory process may begin when a mechanical injury nevus or prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Therefore, people having moles on the body, especially of large size, it is not recommended to be a long time in the sun.
The process of inflammation in addition to redness may also be accompanied by itching, changes around the mole, pain symptoms. In this case, it is also urgent to consult a doctor-oncologist. When inspection is carried out a diagnostic study that allows to identify a malignant process in time. In the initial stages of a mole can be removed using surgical methods such as cryosurgery, the effects of liquid nitrogen, etc.
Advice 4: Look like age spots
Pigment spots are clusters of melanin in the epidermis or Horny layer of the skin. From their appearance no one is immune. It is worth noting that in most cases their occurrence is associated with prolonged exposure to the sun, and with a huge accumulation of melanocytes. The latter phenomenon is often observed when hormonal failure in the body.
Located on the face age spots commonly known as sun or age spots. This is a fairly common phenomenon. Age spots because they are called that they occur in patients aged 50 years or older. However, such expression sometimes occurs in young people. They occur in that period of life when the skin begins to age, is not able to regenerate after exposure to direct sunlight.
On the body the appearance of age spots is completely safe. In most cases treatment is not required as they do not pose any danger to human health. Many people find age spots one of the signs of aging and trying to get rid of these symptoms.
Age spots are oval fragments of leather, painted in red or light brown color. They occur usually on areas of the body that are most exposed to UV light at the back and legs, shoulders, face.
Detected spots are often groups that makes them easy to recognize. In addition, their appearance is accompanied by other symptoms of aging: roughness of the skin, increased dryness, wrinkles. In this case, the nose, ears and cheeks are often visible reddish small veins. In this way the skin becomes thinner and drier.
Doctor age spots can detect on the initial examination of the patient. Sometimes, their diagnosis requires a skin biopsy. There are a number of diseases that can be confused with pigmented spots, nevus, seborrheic keratosis, lentigo malignant. That is why any education on the skin is necessary to consult a specialist. Thus, you will be able to detect serious diseases.