Advice 1: How to understand to what doctor to address

To determine to what doctor to address the patient needs first, to formulate the main complaints, and second, to try to understand what could be the cause of the disease or to provoke an aggravation of chronic diseases.
How to understand to what doctor to address

The main areas of medicine

In modern medicine there are many different areas: cardiology, Oncology, ophthalmology, gastroenterology, gynecology, urology and others. Depending on the required treatment methods, they are divided into medical and surgical, defining and specialization of doctors. For ill people, as a rule, in the first place require the services of a physician of General profile this specialist assess the condition of the patient and characteristic symptoms, can make the first conclusions and prescribe treatment.

If necessary, the General practitioner refers the patient to other specialists such as endocrinologist (if the disease is associated with metabolic disorders) or surgeon (if surgical intervention is required). The therapist should apply also in case of unclear symptoms, for example, when a patient plagued by pain in the abdomen and chest and the person finds it difficult to say what could have caused discomfort.

It is different with those who need medical care after injury - they need to go to the emergency room at the place of residence or resort to call ambulance. In large cities where well-developed health infrastructure, there are often specialized emergency rooms, for example eye care (if a person received an eye injury) or neurological (if there is a danger of brain damage or traumatic brain injury).

General advice when choosing a doctor

When a patient clearly understands that he is sick, he can seek help to a specialist directly. For example, pain in the heart the patient should visit a cardiologist, if you have any breathing problems - the respiratory therapist or the audiologist, if the pain is localized in the upper part - in the nose or throat. In diseases of the reproductive organs, women should schedule an appointment with a gynecologist, and men to the services.

If the soreness associated with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly pancreas and stomach, and are associated with food intake, you must consult a doctor-a gastroenterologist. However you need to remember that abdominal pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including infectious diseases or trauma, and women and diseases of the urogenital area. When complaints about the work of the urinary system (pain in region of kidney, painful urination, etc.), you need to consult a doctor-urologist.

It should be noted that a number of specialists in municipal polyclinics adopted only after consultation with the therapist - because illnesses, which treats, for example, the doctor-immunologist, an endocrinologist or a geneticist, often do not have pronounced symptoms that can be clinically very diverse.

How to choose a surgeon

If the patient required surgery and time allows, you can seek advice from different clinics. After weighing all the pros and cons, the patient, in particular, will be able to choose the laparoscopic method, the surgeon performs all the manipulations, making only a small incision.

How to choose a dentist

In diseases of the teeth and gums should consult dentists, among whom there are experts in different fields. So, physicians-dentists keep and maintain healthy teeth. Surgeons removed the teeth, preparing patients for implantation, providing emergency care for injuries in this area (for example, fractures of the jaw), as well as carry out all surgical interventions in the oral cavity.

To the orthodontist addressed in the malocclusion, or improper growth of teeth and the resulting cosmetic defects. Paradontology help to solve problems related to the condition of the gums, and dentists, podiatrists engaged in various types of prosthetics.

Advice 2: To what doctor to address the pain in the chest

Chest pain is always worried. With a sharp painful sensations in the chest of breath appears the fear of death. Therefore, if the chest pain first appeared, it is necessary to pass examinations and to seek medical attention.
To what doctor to address the pain in the chest
Chest pain can occur in different States. May hurt the muscles, heart, pain may be related to intercostal nerves and pleura. Therefore, the choice of the physician to whom you need to contact depends on the nature of pain and body that "gives" pain impulse.


Since chest pain need to exclude first the most dangerous state, the first survey to be carried out, is electrocardiography or echocardiography. It is also necessary to make ultrasonic research of heart. These surveys will help determine the condition of the heart and to exclude such acute conditions as myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, dissecting aortic aneurysm. Another necessary examination — chest x-ray. X-ray determines the presence/absence of rib fractures, air or fluid in the pleural cavity.


If the ECG revealed any changes, that need a visit to the cardiologist. Usually chest pain is angina, a short paroxysmal pain in the chest, radiating to left arm or left shoulder blade. Stoped the pain "by Nitroglycerin". Angina is a common symptom of coronary heart disease, usually occurs during physical exertion or nervous strain. Therefore, people with unhealthy heart you need to follow a mental and physical rest, and to always have on hand a tablet of Nitroglycerin.

Diseases such as pulmonary embolism, dissecting aortic aneurysm, and myocardial infarction is urgent, life-threatening condition, they are treated only in specialized cardiology hospital. Therefore, with very strong pain in the chest that cannot be removed by taking nitroglycerin, you should immediately call an ambulance!


Another doctor-a specialist who can help with chest pain neurologist. With the defeat of the intercostal nerves appear girdle pain, very strong radiating often in the region of the heart. The pain is worse when breathing in and when moving, the skin on the affected intercostal space is red or, on the contrary, pale, pressure in this area causes severe discomfort. When intercostal neuralgia need to consult a neurologist who will be able to assign the necessary specific treatment.


A surgeon is required if there are rib fractures or a violation of the integrity of the pleural cavity. Fractures of the ribs, the pain constant, does not find a comfortable painless position, increases when breathing and any change of body position. With pressure on the chest there is crepitus — the sound "pohrustyvaniâ" broken ribs.

The pleura is a large area of connective tissue that one sheet covers the lungs and lines the other inside the chest. Between two sheets of pleura negative pressure that keeps the lungs in the expanded state and allow normal breathing. Pleura damage can be inflammatory (pleural effusion, pyothorax) and may be due to accumulation of air (pneumothorax or hemothorax). These two States clearly visible on x-rays. When pneumothorax is in the picture will be seen the accumulation of air in the upper part of the chest. When hemothorax blood accumulates in the lower parts of the pleural cavity. These diseases are treated in urgent order in surgical hospitals. The danger lies in the fact that the air and the blood draw in light and disturb his work. If not promptly remove the content and not spread easy, it can be saved. Collapsed lung not expanded fast enough off forever from the act of breathing.

Thus, the choice of the expert to which you want to apply for pain in the chest, depends on the affected organ. But in any case to delay the visit to the doctor is impossible.

Advice 3: To what doctor to treat problem skin

When problems with the skin you can apply to two people: dermatologist or cosmetologist. It is worth noting that these experts use very different approaches and tools for solving skin problems.
To what doctor to treat problem skin

Problems with the facial skin: a dermatologist or beautician?

Dermatologist - a person having diploma in the relevant specialty dealing with the prevention and treatment of skin diseases. A dermatologist reveals the causes of skin problems and is trying to neutralize directly the root of the problem, not the symptom. The dermatologist conducts a consultation, and only after questioning the patient about his habits, diet, lifestyle, hygiene can make a diagnosis and identify the source of problems. In difficult cases required to conduct the tests.

The cosmetician - the dermatologist by training, but have specialized in cosmetology. Beautician, unlike the dermatologist, not looking for the cause of the problem, and dealing with the symptoms, that is cosmetically removes imperfections on the skin. The specialist can advise the client and suggest something, for example, drink some vitamins, but these tips will be just a subjective opinion of an expert, and following them might make your skin worse.

It is worth noting that in Russia are very common, cosmetologists only certificates of completion of relevant courses, but such "masters" seldom go to work in beauty salons or dermatological centers.

For serious skin diseases comes to the aid of first dermatology, which finds the root cause and then builds a course of treatment, and a cosmetology, which helps to correct the resulting skin blemishes and restore skin an acceptable appearance.

Causes of skin problems

Before you spend money on expensive treatments and consultations will determine the degree of "neglect" of the problem. You may not will need expert help and you will be able to cope with skin problems through their own efforts. To understand whether the intervention of a specialist, one should rule out all possible causes of skin problems:

1. An improper diet. In the human diet should be harmony. Also try to eliminate the sweet, sparkling beverages and spicy foods from your diet and observe the result.

2. Hormonal imbalance is one of the most popular causes of problems with the skin, especially in adolescents. To exclude this reason, hand over the analysis on hormones.

3. Poor hygiene. Washing face to 2-3 times daily, with warm water and a light tonic (for those who have delicate skin), or just soap (for those who have rough skin).

Important to know: zastivanje of the skin, which is often observed among those who too zealously fights acne and cleans the face of various means several times a day, often leads to clogged pores and further formation of acne and comedones.

Eliminate these three reasons, and you are likely to realize that intervention is not required.

Advice 4: How to understand cat

Cat is a charming, sweet, playful, but at the same time, freedom-loving animal. But this does not mean that she loves his master less than a dog. It is important also to love your pet. Cats are very sensitive, they immediately feel the atmosphere in the house. Watching a pet, you can study its habits. Despite the fact that cats are freedom-loving animals, they do not stand alone. Anyone in the house lived a cat, which had to tend and care, know what are the warm relationship between humans and cats.
How to understand cat
Do not take a rounded, wide pupils of your cat, as an infringement on your right to be in charge. She's just really scared, better leave her alone.
But a narrow strip of pupils talking about covert aggression. The cat in this state, flip over on your back, lock the feet to make it impossible to move, and look into her eyes till she take a look. Thus, you give your pet to understand who is the boss.
If you want to play with a pet, then observe the behavior of his tail. A relaxed tail means excitement, anticipation of the game. Slow strokes of his tail, talk about the irritation.
If your cat constantly licks himself, it indicates a constant stress. She can lick themselves to non-healing wounds. In such a situation, immediately contact your veterinarian.
Pulling legs forward, the cats asking you to notice, caressed, fed. Do not ignore your pet at such moments, he will reward you with affection and tenderness.
Evening and night waking is completely normal phenomenon in the behavior of your pet. Play with him before bedtime so he has spent the energy and doesn't disturb you at night.
Useful advice
If the cat is beginning to learn your habits, so she's perfectly happy in your home and happy life.
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