The adrenal glands, located over the kidneys, secrete a number of hormones that are vital to the body. The inner part of the adrenal gland (the medulla) produces epinephrine and norepinephrine - the so-called "stress hormones". The outer part of the adrenal gland (cortex) produces aldosterone, which is responsible for the balance of salts in the body, and cortisol, which is responsible for the metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Also in the cortical layer produces some male sex hormones - androgens.
In some diseases the formation of adrenal hormones are disrupted, resulting in the involvement of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus that in consequence of improper hormone balance, begin to stimulate the adrenal glands. As a result, their size may increase up to 20 times. Wrong emission of hormones of adrenal threatens a violation of all the hormonal status of the organism. It is therefore necessary to diagnose problems that can be associated with dysfunction of the adrenal glands.
For the assessment of adrenal doctor may prescribe following tests: blood from a vein for cortisol, DHEAS, 17-Oh-progesterone, ACGT, testosterone, a blood test for electrolytes, analysis of daily urine for catecholamines.
In case of rejection of adrenal hormones from the norm, your doctor may prescribe tests and other hormones. This is done in order to check how other organs involved in hormonal failure, and to determine if other organ cause problems in the adrenal glands.
In the study the adrenal glands are required to appoint ultrasonography (us) of kidneys and adrenal glands.
In the case of obvious abnormalities on the ultrasound results, the doctor can send patient for computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the adrenal glands.
A blood test for adrenal hormones. Hormones produced by the adrenal glands, called "immune" or "stress". This is due to the fact that they modulate thyroid function and increase resistance to various diseases, stress situations and disorders in the various organs.
Today conducted tests for adrenal hormones and can detect many diseases. The hormone cortisol, which is produced by the adrenal cortex, is a stress hormone. When a person begins to experience psychological or physical stress, this hormone begins to produce by the adrenal cortex.
Advice 2: For that adrenal glands are responsible
The adrenal gland is a paired endocrine glands of higher vertebrates and humans, adjacent to the upper poles of the kidneys. The weight of both adrenal glands of humans is approximately 10-14 g, these glands produce hormones that affect all types of metabolism.
Each adrenal gland has two layers — outer cortex and inner medulla. They are independent secretory organs and produce hormones different nature of the action. The cortical layer is constructed of steroidogenic tissue that produces steroid hormones. Inner medulla formed of chromaffin tissue, it produces hormones: catecholamine.
Corticosteroids — hormones of the cortical layer, they are involved in the regulation of metabolism, affects blood vessel tone and the immune system provide the body's resistance to various stresses and the constancy of its internal environment. The secretion of these hormones controlled by the pituitary gland.
The cells of the cortex produce hormones that regulate protein, carbohydrate, fat and mineral metabolism. These hormones affect the level of potassium and sodium in the blood, keeping her a certain concentration of glucose. With their participation increases the formation and deposition of glycogen in the muscles and liver, these functions perform the adrenal glands together with the hormones of the pancreas.
When hyperthyroidism adrenal cortex develops Addison's disease, it is called bronze. This disease is characterized by bronze skin tone, and fatigue, muscle weakness, and decreased immunity.
Adrenal medulla secretes adrenaline and noradrenaline. These hormones are produced in strong emotions — pain, anger, fear, for example, in case of emergency. The flow of these hormones in the blood helps to regulate vital body functions.
Hormones of the medulla of the adrenal gland cause rapid heartbeat, increased blood pressure and constriction of blood vessels, with the exception of the vessels of the brain and heart. When they enter in the blood increases breakdown of glycogen to glucose in liver cells and muscles, increases the excitability of the retina, improves the function of the vestibular and hearing AIDS. Under the influence of these hormones relax the muscles of lungs and there is inhibition of intestinal motility.
Biologically active substances of medulla help to adapt to adverse environmental influences, for example, by cooling or physical overload. Is changing the functions of the body under the action of extreme stimuli, his forces are mobilized for transfer of stress.