You will need
- Wire with enamel and silk insulation diameter 0.3-0.6 mm
- Round ferrite rod from an old radio
- Exercise book
- Glue BF or nitrocellulose
- Capacitor 1500-4000 pF
- Jacks for antenna, ground, phones
- Phones high-impedance or low-resistance and step-down transformer (for example, the output from an old radio, TVK from an old TV or a transformer from a PA speaker)
- The semiconductor diode the germanium point (for example, D9, D2, D18, ГД507, Д310)
- The antenna wire is bare copper with a diameter of 3-5 mm (the antenna cord) 15-20 m
- Wire copper stranded insulated
- Plate of insulating material — Micarta, textolite, Plexiglas
- Soldering iron
The ferrite rod to wind the strip of paper with a width of 7-8 cm. Paper wrap in several layers, securing them with glue BF to get a tight paper cylinder. The cylinder should be easy to navigate through the ferrite rod after drying.
Received a cylinder wrap 100 turns of wire with enamel and silk insulation. Wrap the wire turn to turn. The ends of the coil and secure with glue. Turned out the coil that the scheme is designated L1.
Assemble the receiver according to the specified schema. The polarity of the switching diode in this case is irrelevant. The output of the receiver connect high-impedance headphones (phones) If those are not there, you can use low-resistivity, for example, from the player. But they can only be connected through step-down transformer. In this case, the high impedance winding of the transformer is connected to the output of the receiver, the headphones to low impedance winding.
The crystal radio can't work without a good antenna and ground. Make grounding. Using flexible stranded wire connect the output to the "ground" receiver, stripped of paint and rust steel radiators. Even better to connect this outlet with buried in the ground to a depth of 1-1,5 m with a metal object. It is desirable that in this location and at this depth the ground was wet.
The antenna should be placed as high as possible. For example, on the roof of the house. You can help & how shipping to get it on the high tree. In an extreme case, position it around the perimeter of the room in your residential home. However, in a reinforced concrete building such an antenna will not work. The antenna is a bare copper wire length of 15-20 m.
Tune in to the radio station by moving the ferrite rod inside the coil form. If you find that no radio station is not in the range settings, or faint on the edge of the range, make another coil, with large elementsin number of turns. Usually the coil can be from 60 to 220 turns.
If the receiver antenna, to ensure Gazobezopasnost it is necessary to close with any simple switch of the antenna wire and ground, when not in use by the receiver or during a thunderstorm. The approaching storm can be seen by appearing in the headphones cod electric razrezov.
As a metal object to ground will suit an old bucket, a piece of batteries, water pipes, etc.
Advice 2: How to make a radio
The simplest kind of radio detector. In 50-e years of the last century, the Soviet industry was producing one model of the detector receiver – "Komsomolets". In more recent times, the Assembly of such a receiver was considered a good workshop for beginners in ham radio. We offer recommendations on how to make a radio receiver with his hands.
You will need
- Coil from under the thread, winding wire marks PEL, electromagnetic headphones, point the diode (detector) type D9 or D2, a few capacitors, clips or clasp plug receptacles
The simplest crystal radio set you can mount on plaque or panel. But this is not necessary in order to create a workable machine. An experienced model can be collected directly on the table where the expanded view will lie its details. This visual model allows you to make the receiver the necessary changes to correct the mistakes and make adjustments.
Take an ordinary coil from under the thread, it would be the base. Wrap the coil nawalka approximately 450 turns of wire. In this case every 80 turns to make the bends. In places of bends, twist the wire in the form of loops. You got a layered coil with multiple taps.
Now you need to strip the ends of the insights and taps mounted on the coil. Do this carefully to keep the wire. Now you can proceed directly to the Assembly of the detector receiver.
Connect the beginning of coil with one of the outputs of the diode detector, and it will end with one of the contact legs of the wire headphones. Unoccupied detector and phones connect appropriate size wire cut.
To the conductor extending from the beginning of the coil to the diode securely fasten the wire, which is assigned the role of antenna. The end of this antenna wire should be pre-cleaned from the insulation.
Now you need to attach the cable grounding wire to the conductor connecting the end of coil with head phones (call it the grounded conductor). During the experiments with the receiver we switch the grounded conductor from one output coil on the other conclusion.
Put on the head phones and listen. It may well be that you will hear nothing. This is possible for the reason that the detector receiver is not tuned to a radio station, kisimul in the vicinity of your location. In this case, try to adjust the receiver by changing the number of turns of the antenna circuit of the coil included in the circuit of the antenna. A simple crystal radio can be set to radio or medium wave bands. However, due to objective design constraints, the receiver can receive signals not every transmitting station, in particular, is very remote.
Since you created the detector by the receiver can carry out interesting experiments that help to understand how it works and to gain valuable practical skills of designing of radio equipment.
Advice 3: How easy it is to make the output on the one hand
This element is quite simple in execution, but at the same time is very important, as is the basis for other, more complex elements. No matter what you build, you will be able to make out on one hand.
Pull-UPS and push-UPS. So you easily carry this item, learn how to catch up on the bar 10 times, not tucking in his legs and keeping them straight, and exercise from the floor at least 20 times.
Checkbox. The next step is to fix the check box, as shown in the picture. To make it easier to make this part of the element after pull-UPS you can put the forearm parallel to the crossbar, and then out into the box.
To do push-UPS on a horizontal bar. After you leave the check box to fix the second arm on the horizontal bar, as shown in the picture. To make it easier to do it, you can have a little wobble. With this position you need to do push-UPS on a horizontal bar and out on the straight arm.
Be careful when picking a box, since if it is off hand, you can hurt your thumb.
Once you may fail, but the important thing is perseverance and regularity. If you develop these two factors, achieve great results.
Advice 4: How to make a antenna for the radio with your hands
If you purchased all-wave radio and want to listen to distant radio stations of ranges long, medium and short waves, you need to equip your radio external antenna. This antenna will allow you to experiment with the detector receiver.
You will need
- - the cord or the antenna cord;
- - insulators or clips for electrical wiring;
- - soldering tools;
- - pliers, wire cutters;
- - plexiglass, glass fiber;
- - drill with drill bits;
- neon lamp;
- switch type the switch.
In urban environments are important dimensions of the antenna and ease its mounting. For these qualities is most suitable l-shaped antenna. It consists of a horizontal part and lower. The long horizontal part of the standard l-shaped antenna can be from 20 to 40 meters. Longer than antenna, the higher the overall sensitivity of the receptor.
Select the mounting location for the horizontal part of the antenna. Hang the antenna you need as high as possible above the earth's surface. To fix the horizontal part of the possible structure on the roofs of buildings, on specially installed poles and masts, on high trees. The main thing - to avoid proximity to electrical wiring and electrical installations. The horizontal part of the wire antenna is fastened to the supports indirectly, with a chain insulator. As insulators you can apply as a special antenna, and a ceramic or glass rollers for external wiring, as well as plates from glass fiber plastic with drilled holes in them.
You can make the antenna from solid copper, bronze or aluminum wire, as well as special multi-strand antenna wire. And copper wire it is necessary to take section of at least 2mm, bronze - 1.5 mm, aluminum wire must have a diameter not less than 4.5 mm. Reduction of antenna is usually from the same wire that the horizontal part. If you want to construct an antenna of greater length the wire size must be increased.
If you want to suspend the antenna on the roof of a tall building, mount it first on the ground, immediately securing the insulators for suspension and measurement of the decline. Descend from the roof of the cable, attach it far from the lower end of the antenna, raise it to the roof and lock. Further, in the same way lift the reduction of the antenna. The hole in the window frame, insert the plastic tube into the tube insert the cable through the reduction and tightly wrap it around the nearest Central heating pipes (pipe in this location need to pre-clean the paint). It will protect you from destruction by static electricity during further work.
Now, in the same way raise up and lock the second end of the antenna. Attach the antenna by using mating or bolting. Take care that the reduction does not touch the edge of the roof or any other structures. For these purposes it is possible to manufacture the staves-spacers on the insulator (e.g., a roller) on the end. In working condition wire reduction should be connected to the aerial socket of the receiver.
To work with an external antenna you will need to install electrostatic and lightning protection. As the electrostatic protection you can apply a neon lamp (for example, starter for fluorescent lamps), included between the antenna and ground. As storm protection, apply a simple switch that allows you to close wire reduction to ground. During a thunderstorm, use an external antenna impossible. In working condition reduction of the antenna should always be grounded.
Mount the switch and reduction of storm protection on the plate of Plexiglas or fiberglass. In the absence of specially made grounding you can use a pipe network of Central heating, pre-cleaning it from paint and pripal to it a thick copper wire.