Advice 1: How to make asphalt

Asphalt (or asphalt) today is a popular, reliable and easy to manufacture material. The process of manufacture and laying is nothing complicated. The asphalt composition includes inert materials (gravel, sand), bitumen, surface active substance (surfactant) or mineral powder.
How to make asphalt
You will need
  • sand, gravel, bitumen, surfactants, mineral powder, liquid fuel, water, a drying unit, mixer
Instruction
1
Determine proportions of mixture components (inert materials – 90%, mineral powder – 5% bitumen 6 %); make the selection of materials for mix and process them (for example, inert materials machine drying, bitumen – heating).
2
Feed the wet and cold sand and gravel into the hopper of the power unit by a crane grab grip, forklifts or conveyors.
3
Load sand and gravel into the pipeline, which is a bucket Elevator inclined type. After the bucket conveyor to be filled, convey the materials into a drying unit.
4
Equip his special furnaces, where will the combustion of fuel in liquid or gaseous state. Liquid fuel, before entering the drying unit, store it in heated tanks. Thus, in the furnace it will come already heated.
5
Provide special pumps for continuous combustion. The unit must be equipped with fans, guides in the furnace air. In the process of drying and combustion, the resulting gases of high temperature and dust particles, elongated dust-collecting filter system. As a result, the drum unit the aggregates are thoroughly dried, heated to the desired temperature of approximately 200?C.
6
Add to a mixing unit at a temperature of 160 degrees mineral powder and bitumen. As a result of all production stages will be asphalt.
Note
From the hopper of the power unit should be constant supply to the Assembly conveyor of sand and gravel, as wet and cold. Dust, can be used in the manufacturing process of mixtures or as sludge to be disposed of. Hot gases, not containing solid particles emitted through the chimneys.

Advice 2: How lay asphalt

Asphalt is an essential element of modern cities, and rural areas. As a rule, efficiently laid asphalt is up to 10 years under optimal conditions.
How lay asphalt

Preliminary work



The first stage is the marking of territory: specialists determine where the asphalt will be put, where to put the curbs, and where to do the collection and runoff of rainwater. They also determine the composition of asphalt pavement, the thickness of the gravel base. The thickness of 10-15 cm is sufficient on-site, where most of the moving pedestrians and do not often passing motor vehicle. If settling industrial area, gas station, road section, i.e. the expected regular traffic, including trucks required gravel base 25 to 35 cm and two to three layers of asphalt.

Crushed stone select the suitable fractions. The fraction represents the size of the individual stone/grain, which is the maximum admissible in each particular case. If the desired thickness of the broken stone base of 10-15 cm, then apply the gravel fraction 20-40 cm If the base should be wider and more reliable, it is placed in two or three layers. When laying a bottom layer of base gravel shall have a fraction of 40-70 cm, this layer in a situation of lifting of ground waters is responsible for water drainage. The second layer provides uniform distribution of load on the ground, for him to take the gravel in the 20-40 cm Gravel fraction 5-20 cm is used for the third layer. Each layer is compacted by the roller 5-6 times. The slope of the site (5-10 mm on 1 meter) is in the direction where you plan to install rainwater harvesting.

The installation of curbs, holding rain water drainage, installation of manholes, construction and repair of drainage and manholes are carried out before laying the asphalt.

Paving



To lay asphalt is recommended in the absence of rain and when the air temperature is not less than 10 ° C, the mixture is not cooled. If the styling for some reason is in the winter, pre-installed on-site must take "iron" — a special machine which will dry and heat the ground.

Dump trucks delivered to site ready mix. The pavers distribute its territory, and rollers, rammers and vibrating plate compacted.

The asphalt should be laid so to be in with the surrounding surface at the same level. Its thickness depends on the planned operating conditions. For example, in adjoining areas of residential high-rises appropriate layer of asphalt approximately 4-5 cm If you plan an intensive exploitation of the territory, the movement of trucks, etc., it is necessary to lay asphalt in two layers — coarse and fine-grained asphalt concrete, each layer at 4-5 cm in Order to achieve the best coating strength, it is possible to stack the third layer.

To ensure the adhesion of the lower layer of asphalt from the top, the old and the new layer, apply a binder — bitumen. He poured on the laid layer of asphalt before laying a new one.

Smooth the coating with special machines — road rollers and compactors. Rollers weighing 6-10 tons or more used for compaction of base and asphalt pavement, which is designed for large loads. Rollers weighing 2-4 tons are used for compaction of asphalt, designed for moderate loads. In remote places, used plate compactors and rammers. Below the seal was of higher quality, the base hydrate with a street-sweeper.
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