Instruction

1

It's very simple: 1 degree is divided into 60 shares, which are called "moments". And every minute, in turn, contains 60 "seconds". As you can see, there is a complete analogy with those minutes and seconds, which for us has always been more associated with the time dimension than the angles and coordinates. So comfortable uniformity of dimension, we owe to the inhabitants of Babylon, from which the legacy of modern civilization got all these hours, minutes and seconds. The Babylonians used a sexagesimal system of calculation.

Of course, apart from minutes and seconds are smaller fractions of a degree. Unfortunately, the simplicity of the ancient ends and the modern bureaucracy. It would be logical to divide by 60 a share, or at least on the usual milliseconds, microseconds, etc. But in the SI system, and home Standards this is not recommended, so fractions of a degree, smaller angular seconds should be recalculated in radians. Fortunately, the measurement of such small angles may need only enough of the prepared. We can meet more of the simple tasks.

Of course, apart from minutes and seconds are smaller fractions of a degree. Unfortunately, the simplicity of the ancient ends and the modern bureaucracy. It would be logical to divide by 60 a share, or at least on the usual milliseconds, microseconds, etc. But in the SI system, and home Standards this is not recommended, so fractions of a degree, smaller angular seconds should be recalculated in radians. Fortunately, the measurement of such small angles may need only enough of the prepared. We can meet more of the simple tasks.

2

So, to the measure of the angle specified in format (degrees minutes seconds convert to decimal degrees, should be to the whole number of degrees to add the number of minutes divided by 60 and the number of seconds divided by 3600. For example, the geographic coordinates of a wonderful place in the city of Krasnodar is 45° 2' 32" North latitude and 38° 58' 50" East longitude. If you count it in the usual degree, we obtain 45° + 2/60 + 32/3600 = 45.0421° North latitude and 38 + 58/60 + 50/3600 = 38.9806 East longitude.

3

It's easy to do in the calculator, but you can also use Internet resources. On the Internet you will be offered a slight movement of the mouse to convert seconds to degrees, radians, revolutions, Yes, even in miles if there is a desire! Here are some links to online converters angular coordinates:

*http://convertr.ru/angle/**http://www.unitconversion.org/unit_converter/angle.html**http://www.1728.com/angles.htm**http://www.fcc.gov/mb/audio/bickel/DDDMMSS-decimal.html**http://www.cleavebooks.co.uk/scol/ccangle.htm**http://convert-to.com/120/angle-units.html**http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/angle-converter-d_1095.html*# Advice 2 : How to convert seconds to degrees

Measure in degreesAh, minutes and seconds is most commonly used to denote geographical or astronomical coordinates. As in the time dimension, each arc minute contains 60 seconds, and the degree of fit 60 minutes. This sexagesimal system of calculation is saved from the time of ancient Babylon. But in modern systems of standardization, including those used in Russia, the SI uses the decimal calculus, so quite often you want to translate minutes and seconds to decimal degrees.

Instruction

1

Share known you the number of seconds by 3600 to convert them to degrees. As one arc minute contains sixty seconds of arc, and one degree - sixty arc minutes, seconds to degrees should be 60*60=3600.

2

Use the calculator for practical calculations because for calculation with accuracy to thousandths, it is very rare mathematical abilities. For example, it can be a standard calculator Windows. To run it click the "start" button (or press the WIN), go to menu in the Programs section, then, in its subsection "Standard" and select "Calculator". You can do it in another way- to press the key combination WIN + R, type the command calc and press Enter.

3

Enter the number of seconds by clicking buttons in the interface of the calculator on the screen or using the keyboard. Then click the key with a slash ("slash") and enter the number 3600. Then press the equal sign and the calculator will calculate and show you the value in degrees corresponding to a predetermined number of seconds.

4

Use online calculators if for some reason a hand there is no other. For example, you can enter a query with the desired mathematical operations into Google search and it will show you the result, calculate it on your own calculator. For example, if you need to find out the value of 17 seconds in degrees, then type in Google this query: "17 / 3600". Press the search button it is not necessary.

5

Usually together with the need to count seconds and minutes, as denoted by geographic coordinates in the format degrees minutes seconds (° ' "). For example, the coordinates of the most visited places in the city of Krasnodar is 45° 01' 31" North latitude and 38° 59' 58" East longitude. To translate the longitude of the location in decimal degrees, it is necessary for the whole 38 degrees, add minute, expressed in degrees (59 / 60 = 0,983), and seconds, expressed in degrees (58 / 3600 = 0,016). If counted according to the same algorithm and the latitude coordinates in degrees would look like this: 45,025° North latitude and 38,999° East longitude.

# Advice 3 : How to convert coordinates

Before the advent of satellite navigation systems from the Russian, by the nature of its activities not associated with geodesy and cartography, questions about translation of coordinates usually do not arise. On Soviet maps existed system of standards. Then became available to Western paper maps, and now many use a public network or even navigation devices. And it turned out that different countries use different systems, and

**coordinates**need to be recalculated.You will need

- - geographical map;
- - GPS-Navigator;
- computer;
- program PHOTOMOD GeoCalculator.
- table SK42toWGS84.xls.

Instruction

1

Let's see what country and at what time the published map. In different cases, the Land taken for different geometries. For old maps our planet is often taken for a ball, and this form is rather arbitrary.

2

More accurately the shape of the Earth corresponds to the ellipsoid. To represent the surface of a parcel, grab a biaxial ellipsoid. Slide it and turn to a piece of his imaginary shell to accurately match the surface of the earth in your country or in your region. This is the method most often used in cartography.

3

After determining the angle and distance that you offset the ellipsoid in relation to the original, you will get a datum, that is, the coefficient adopted for this country. Variants of the ellipsoid quite a lot.

4

The standard system is adopted ITRE - "international terrestrial reference frame". Attached to it the American system WGS and Russian "PZ" - "Position of the Earth." All of them have changed and became more accurate. Now they are almost the same.Note that

**the coordinates**in the reference system, designed to link together in a different datum, measured in metres, not degrees, as on old maps.5

Each country has its own base point. It is known to all object

**coordinates**which can be used to determine astronomical methods. It is constructed from the geodetic network. For this purpose, various types of theodolites can measure angles. This method is called method triangulation.6

To recalculate

**the coordinates**, you need to know the datum for the country. Defined in degrees**coordinates**in a Cartesian system. Rotate and slide the system given the datum.Calculate the indices of coordinates on the ellipsoid and apply them again in degrees. Applied parameter conversion formula Helmert or Molodensky formula, where you set five parameters. In the first case, you need to know three parameters for offsets and angles and scale factor. To translate**the coordinates**back to degrees, you need to know the extent of the polar compression of the ellipsoid and its diameter. In each country there are standards for conversion information.7

When using the Navigator to recalculate it manually is not necessary. You need to know

**the coordinates of the**WGS of the three data points and the ellipsoid. Translate**the coordinates**by using computer programs. For example, distributed under the terms of free software InvMol or OziExplorer . Create a datum by specifying the parameters of the ellipsoid. As coefficients are set to zeroes. Attach your card to the datum.8

Find three points in the same datum enter their coefficients. Find

**coordinates**of the necessary points in WGS. This can be done, for example, using GoogleEarth, if it is not possible to take measurements on the spot using the Navigator.9

Count readings in seconds. To do this, multiply the degrees by 3600, minutes by 60 and all fold.Enter data into the program. You have obtained the coefficients, which must be entered instead of zeros in datum. Do this and restart the program. Check the alignment of the points.

10

Program PHOTOMOD GeoCalculator is also distributed free of charge. In order to use it, you need to know how the system is set

**the coordinates**and what they need to be translated. Data can be loaded from a text file, appropriately preparing it. The document consists of four columns, which indicate the name, latitude, longitude, and altitude of a given point. As delimiters of the columns using commas and the decimal part of the number separated by dots. The desired coordinate system can be selected in the special window. You will not only get the data you need, but also the date for a given country, the full name of the coordinate system, information about the Prime Meridian, etc.