Advice 1: How to calculate average percentage

The average value in the statistics is called the generalized indicator that characterizes the level of change homogeneous units together. In any case, between characterized by symptoms must be present relationship.
How to calculate average percentage
Instruction
1
Determine what average size you will be to characterize the units together. It may be arithmetic average, geometric average, geometric average and cubic average. The choice depends on the initial data for calculation and the relationship between them. The easiest way to calculate the figure for the average arithmetic value. For calculation used the formula: har=Oz/OS, where Oz is the total volume of characteristic values, OS - the total volume of the aggregate. Suppose you need to calculate the average percentage of overdue debt for the year subsidiaries of the company.
2
Select quantitative indicators of changes characteristic for the analyzed period. For this example, fold the amount of arrears at year end for each branch (EMP). Determine the total volume of the aggregate, i.e. the sum of the total debt of all subsidiaries at end of year (OS). Calculate the average percentage of overdue debt on the arithmetic average, substituting the values of the numerator and denominator in the formula and multiplying the resulting number by 100%. The resulting number will be the average percentageof om of overdue debt on all branches of the company.
3
Some average values in the statistics is the calculation of the average percentageof the marriage and in the workplace. This figure is calculated as follows: FV=BP/Op*100%, where BP-the cost of defective products, Op is the total volume of produced goods in terms of value.
4
Determine the cost of defective products and the total value of production for the analyzed period according to accounting. The cost of marriage is reflected in the account 28 "Marriage in production". The value of total production can be calculated by folding the data on a line 020 "the Cost price of products produced and sold" statement of profit and loss and balance sheet data on the cost of finished goods and work in progress. Calculate the average percentage of marriage, substituting the values of the numerator and denominator to the indicated formula.

Advice 2: How to calculate the average value

Numerical characteristic of multiple functions or numbers, enclosed between the maximum and minimum values is called the average value. In mathematics, under this definition it is possible to understand the average value of a function average weighted average chronological. In probability theory and statistics, non - parametric averages such as the mode, median and average value of a random variable. For each of these concepts has its own calculation algorithm.
How to calculate the average value
You will need
  • Textbooks on higher mathematics, probability theory, statistics
Instruction
1
So, in mathematics the most common and popular calculate power average of function values according to Kolmogorov. Special cases of Kolmogorov averages are the average of the arithmetic average squared, the average harmonic average geometric. To calculate the arithmetic mean (or simple average), add up all the numbers and divide by their number. Calculate the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of these numbers and you will get the mean squared value. The average harmonic and the mean of the geometric is also easy to compute by substitution of the data series in the formula
The formula for calculating the exponential average
2
A weighted average is calculated when we are dealing with linear combinations. Here, too, there are different algorithms. Often use the average arithmetic weighted average, a geometric weighted average, a harmonic weighted. These values you can calculate using the following formulas:
Formulas for the calculation of the average weighted
3
Chronological average is used to calculate the average value of the absolute values changing in a certain time interval. To calculate this value, use this formula:
The formula for calculation of the chronological average
4
In statistics, the most frequent concepts such as mode and median. They are non-parametric averages. Recall that the mode is the most frequently occurring number in the given range, and the median - a characteristic value which will divide the sample into two equal parts "upper" and "lower".
5
In probability theory , the average value of a random variable is nothing but a mathematical expectation. If you have a discrete distribution, then the mathematical expectation is calculated according to the formula (1), and if continuous, but the formula (2)
Formula for calculating the average value of a random variable

Advice 3: How to find the geometric mean

The average geometric in General is used less frequently than the arithmetic mean, but it can be useful when calculating the average value of indicators changes over time (wages of an individual employee, the dynamics of indicators of progress, etc.).
The formula for finding the geometric mean
You will need
  • Scientific calculator
Instruction
1
In order to find the geometric mean of several numbers, first you need to multiply all these numbers. For example, you are given a set of five indicators: 12, 3, 6, 9 and 4. Multiply all these numbers: 12х3х6х9х4=7776.
2
Now from the resulting numbers need to extract the root degree equal to the number of elements of the series. In our case, the number 7776 will need to extract the fifth root using the scientific calculator. Obtained after this operation the number – in this case 6 – will be the geometric average for source group number.
3
If you don't have the scientific calculator, then calculate the geometric mean of series of numbers by using functions SRGEON in Excel or by using one of the online calculators specifically designed to compute geometric means.
Note
If you need to find the geometric mean of the total for the two numbers, the calculator you do not need to remove the root of the second degree (square root) of any number you can use the regular calculator.
Useful advice
Unlike the arithmetic mean, the geometric mean is not so much affected by large deviations and fluctuations between individual values in the test set.

Advice 4: How to calculate the volume of pipe

To calculate the volume of pipe, measure its length and inner and outer radii. Define square cross sections on the outer and inner radius, calculate the volumes. It will be the internal and external volume of the pipe. Then calculate the volume of the material from which made the pipe, by a simple subtraction. If you know the material from which made the pipe and can weigh it, calculate its volume using the density.
How to calculate the volume of pipe
You will need
  • tape measure, calipers, a table of densities of some substances, Libra.
Instruction
1
Determination of the volume of the pipe geometric metodos using the measuring tape or in any other way measure the length of pipe, including all bends. Then a caliper or other suitable device, locate the external and internal diameter of the pipe and calculate the radius, dividing each diameter by 2. Some pipes are marked in inches. To convert this value to meters, multiply inches or 0.0254 in. Most often indicated in inches inside diameter. Calculate the total volume of the pipe on the outer radius. For this, the number 3,14 multiply by the square of the outer radius, measured in meters and is measured in m length of pipe V=3,14•R2•l. Get the volume in cubic meters.
2
Calculate the internal volume of the pipe. Do it the same way as for the external volume only in the calculation, use the value of the internal radius of the pipe V=3,14•r2•l. So it is possible to determine the amount of a substance which may be in the pipe. This can be water, oil, gas, etc. to find the volume of the material from which made the pipe, from the amount subtract the inner. In order not to make unnecessary calculations in the event if you do not want to count the external and internal volumes, find the volume of the body of the pipe immediately. To do this, the difference of external and internal radii erect in the square, multiply by the number 3.14, and the length of the pipe V=3,14•(R-R)2•l.
3
Determination of the volume of the body of the pipe through protectionniste from a special table the density of the material from which made the pipe (steel, cast iron, plastic, glass, etc.) in kg/m3. Then weigh the tube on the scales, expressing its mass in kilograms. To get the volume of the body of the pipe, its mass divide by the density (V=m/ρ. Get the result in cubic meters. In all cases, when you need to translate cubic meters to cubic centimeters, multiply the result by 1,000,000.

Advice 5: How to calculate the thief in the team

Unfortunately, sometimes even in the most cohesive and close-knit groups appear thieves. Colleagues are beginning to carefully look at each other, trying to figure out who is stealing things and money. And often it turns out that and think no one, but the loss continues.
How to calculate the thief in the team
You will need
  • a small video camera (e.g., mobile phone).
Instruction
1
Contact security service. The employees of this Department can help in the calculation of the thief. They'll conduct an internal investigation and after a certain time can give you the name of the offender. However, the security may not always help you in this matter.
2
Attentively get accustomed to colleagues. Look at the behavior of each employee. Eyes of a thief often "run" in search of profit, and if he will lock eyes with you, he will immediately take the eye.
3
Talk with each employee. Alone tell your colleague that you know exactly what a thief is he, and his reaction and behavior. Evidence and proof you are unlikely to find, but these conversations will help you to figure out who is stealing valuable things.
4
Get a special powder and a flashlight. This powder is treated money. And when a man touches them, his hands would leave marks that can be seen using ultraviolet light. To calculate the thief must leave the marked bills in a prominent place, and when they lost, Shine on the hands of the employees.
5
Install a hidden camera. The intended action is important to tell your colleagues - it should be done in secret, otherwise the thief finds out about the impending trap. Set the camera to the place from which a clear view of the entire room. So you will be able to obtain irrefutable proof of guilt of a specific employee.
6
Go to the police. When theft occur regularly and calculate the thief alone does not work, you can contact the police. However, even the police are not always able to help you. Of course, they will hold a conversation with each employee, but is unlikely to be able to find the thief immediately. They can give special wallets filled with paint. When the wallet is opened, the package contained inside is broken and indelible ink splashed in the face of the thief.

Advice 6: How to calculate ring size

You decide to purchase ring in online store and buying it will have in terms provided by the shop by table size. Your task is to calculate your size for the ring. Try these tips and you will be able to determine the size of the rings for some dimensional systems.
How to calculate ring size
You will need
  • - ruler or caliper;
  • - thread or thin string;
  • - nail clippers;
  • - the table of conformity of sizes of rings.
Instruction
1
The Russian system of the size of the rings is based on the inner diameter of the ring. The step size is 0, 5 mm. To determine it at home you can use the calipers. If not this tool, the diameter of the ring can be calculated using a regular ruler.
2
To find out ring size, remember the formula from a school course of geometry: the circumference is the product of the number π on the diameter. To measure the circumference of your finger, use a strong thread. Wrap it around your finger 4-5 girth at the widest portion thereof. Do not wrap the string tight or overly weak. It should not be felt on the finger.
3
To make along a few finger movements which twist the thread to each other in the harness. Carefully cut all the layers with scissors. Measure the resulting flagellum with a ruler in millimeters. This will be the circumference of your finger.
4
To calculate the size of the ring divide this value by the number π equal to 3, 14... the result rounded up to the nearest 0.5 or 1. For example, the calculated diameter was 16.3. Round it up to 16, 5. The result of 17.7 round to the nearest whole number 18. It will be Russian ring size.
5
There are several dimensional systems for rings. For example, the size range of the rings USA like Russian, only the ring diameter is measured in inches. One inch is equal to 2.54 cm In the UK adopted a letter system of dimension rings. The sizes of the rings are the most popular countries–manufacturers represented in the illustration.
Useful advice
When ordering a ring over the Internet, pay attention to the width of the selected products. If it is quite wide, it is recommended to order a ring size up.

Advice 7: How to calculate and plot

Diagram - flowchart of the solution of the problem of the strength of materials when calculating the strength characteristics and loads on the material. It reflects the dependence of the bending moments of the length of the loaded area of any element. It can be a beam or truss, the other bearing structure.
How to calculate and plot
Instruction
1
When calculating the strength of material is considered that there are four kinds of internal stresses that arise in elements loaded by external forces. This torque, transverse force, longitudinal force and bending moment.
2
Usually build the plot twisting and bending moments, as a most dangerous to the strength characteristics of structures. If necessary, study the distribution of longitudinal and lateral forces on the loaded length of the element, counting and build also plot the longitudinal Q and transversal forces N.
3
Building plot in arbitrary scale and sign, indicating dimensions. Proportion to comply with is necessary. The signs "+" and " - " in a circle indicates a sign of plot on the plot forces.
4
To build a plot, start with the solution of problems in theoretical mechanics and strength of materials. Select the nature of item and the type of its relationships (the ways of fixation in space). In this case, consider the following basic rules: - a system at rest is in equilibrium; the sum of the forces acting on a balanced system equal to 0, as the sum of the moments generated by these forces; the moment the product of force on the shoulder perpendicular to the distance from the point of application of force to the point of time;- the upward force is positive, downward is negative;- if the system when moment seek to turn clockwise moment is positive if vs is negative.
5
Specify the exact true direction of the reactions when the elements under consideration. To do this, define the dependence of the force and moment from the argument x, and the direction of travel (right to left or Vice versa).
6
Take a pencil, a ruler, paper. Draw a scale diagram of the considered element (rod) and its compounds (props).
7
In accordance with the calculations indicate the point of application and direction of forces, their size. Specify a point of time, its direction.
8
Divide the element into sections (section), specify them cross force, get to the plot. Define in cross-sections bending moments. Construct bending moment diagrams.

Advice 8: How to calculate pension

In achieving national retirement age of employees of the FIU is computed state allowance. Its size depends on the length of the person employed, the amount of monthly earnings. Pension is calculated on the basis of employment records and accounting payroll records.
How to calculate pension
You will need
  • - labor book and other documents confirming the seniority of the employee;
  • calculator;
  • - acts of local government;
  • - documents about the wages of the employee.
Instruction
1
Define the seniority of the employee. It is calculated by summing the periods of performance of the employment duties of an employee in each company. To do this, write the start and end dates of the work of a specialist in a particular firm. Fold them together and find the seniority of the employee in calendar days.
2
Select years, months in the result (for the whole year take 360 days for a month – 30 days). Calculate the related coefficient. For this purpose the length of service in years and multiply by the value of one year of seniority (this figure is established by the acts of the regional government for each year). If the employee's seniority is 28 years 4 months, to calculate the coefficient, you need to take 28+4/12.
3
Determine the average monthly salary of a specialist. To do this fold the amount of remuneration for any selected employee 60 months of continuous employment. Then the result by the number of months in the period.
4
Now the average monthly earnings, divide by the average wage in Russia (it is approved by the Government of the Russian Federation for a period of time taken for the calculation of pensions). Multiply the result by the average salary in the Russian Federation, which is established by legislative acts in order to charge, change the amount of the pension.
5
The amount received from the settlement of pension subtract the base part (to be determined on the basis of legislative acts). Multiply the result by the period during which it is expected accrual of benefits. In 2013 it will be 19 years old. Will pension capital benefits from the state.
6
Now find the insurance part of state benefits. For this purpose the calculated amount of pension capital multiply by the time of pension.
7
For employees born in 1967 and younger when they go on pension , the state allowance will be calculated differently. As the pension will depend not only on compulsory insurance contributions and sums transferred by the employees to the funded part of the benefit.

Advice 9: How to calculate date of birth in the cat

Cats – the most numerous tribe of Pets, they can be found in many families, residents, and owners of country houses hold, sometimes, and a few fluffy favourites. Pregnancy those cats who live in apartments, in most cases planned, but there are cases when the cat spree without the participation of the host and to determine the due date falls on circumstantial evidence.
How to calculate date of birth in the cat

Pregnant your cat


Even a planned mating may not complete a pregnancy, so it is important to determine whether fruitfully was the date and whether your cat to become a mother. The period of gestation in cats is 9 weeks old, but as always in nature, the norm is the variation in few days. In cats it can be 5 days in the one and in the other direction. Cats with short hair pregnancy lasts less 58-68 days, long-haired - 62-72 days. A lot depends on how many kittens will give birth to a cat. If it is 1-3 the kitten, it will go longer than kittens when it happens 5 or more. Conception usually occurs within a day or two after coating.

Special pregnancy tests for Pets does not yet exist, so the only indicator in the first couple of weeks is the behaviour of a cat. The first few days you may not notice, but examine them carefully to the animal's behavior, especially how she eats. The change in dietary habits – a sure sign of pregnancy. She can abandon the usual food, there is more or less than normal, begin to sleep more and more often to drink. Some cats by the end of the second week you may receive a sickness, like a normal woman, her maybe a few days to rant, but this condition in cats is quick.

You can in two weeks or later after the presumed mating to visit a veterinary clinic equipped with an ultrasound machine and test cat pregnancy. With the end of the 2nd week, the embryo kittens can already be seen on the monitor screen.

When bear cat


On the Internet there are many sites that provide calendars, in which one column contains the day of mating, the second the expected day of delivery. But you may be able to more accurately predict it, watching as pregnancy proceeds.

Usually within 4 th-6 th week you will already know that the cat expects the addition of its appearance. Her nipples become pink hue and can begin to peel off, the belly becomes noticeable and increases with each passing day. At this time, you can visit a vet to have it, even with the help of palpation, determined the approximate number of kittens. The very best not to mashing once again the cat, not to hurt her.

After 7-weeks, putting his hand on the cat's stomach, you can feel the movement. In this time the animal sleeps a lot and often visits your tray, lot of eating and drinking. Before the birth for 2-3 days the abdomen descends, shifting to the thighs and looks a little saggy, there is discharge, nipples swell and they also released the white liquid. The cat starts looking for a secluded place, will make it easy for her, making a box and putting it in a soft warm cloth.

Advice 10: How to calculate the period of supercompensation

The supercompensation – the main purpose of virtually any trip to the gym. This is the period of time for which the muscles of athletes recover after a workout and become stronger, fitter and bigger than they were before.
How to calculate the period of supercompensation

The supercompensation: what is it?



After sports training your muscles gradually start to recover. This long process can be divided into several stages. During the first stage, the muscles go back to potrenirovatsja level. The next stage is the growth of muscles, their efficiency increases. The period for which the muscles do not just rest after training, but become stronger – and supercompensate. Reaching its peak, athletic performance starts to decline and gradually return to potrenirovatsja level.

The peak of supercompensation is the perfect time for the next trip to the gym. If you exercise muscles that have not had time to fully recover, the training effect will be negligible, if not negative: weary muscles threatened overtraining. The effectiveness of training to be reduced and in that case, if you miss the right moment: at the peak of supercompensation muscle performance may increase by 10-20%, allowing the athlete to increase the load.

This is an important point because only a constant increase in load can provide a stable growth performance. Overhead, the athlete will only be able to maintain the level already achieved.

How to determine the perfect time to workout?



Unfortunately, to accurately determine the period of supercompensation is impossible. This process is individual and depends on many factors: the metabolism of an athlete, initial level of fitness, intensity, power, overall condition of the body. In addition, different functions and muscle groups are recovering in different ways and the period of supercompensation different.

You must consider this caveat: if the workout was not intense and my muscles got a sufficient load, the supercompensation will not, the performance will not increase. In the case of excessive load occurs overtraining, and as a result, stopping the development of athletic performance, if not regress.

Cyclic training is the solution to the problem of supercompensation


The solution to the problem of supercompensation – competent training program, tailored to the individual characteristics of the athlete. One of the most important principles of this program – cyclic alternation of load intensity, which is produced by different muscle groups.

The essence of calironia the training is to split the sports program on some periods which are repeated with different degrees of intensity: easy, medium, and high. Perfect training split, when the program is divided into several days, during which the athlete is working on a separate muscle group.

It should also be noted that different parameters (such as strength, endurance, muscle volume, etc.) the period of supercompensation is different and requires loads of varying intensity. Therefore, it is a split workout with cyclic change of load provides a uniform development of all training parameters.
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