Advice 1: How to calculate the turnover of retail trade

The company's turnover implies one of the important values of the company's activities, which is the basis of calculation of such indicators as payback period and daily rate of turnover. The definition of turnover allows you to identify profitability and develop a future strategy development.
How to calculate the turnover of retail trade
Think, for what period you need to calculate the company's turnover.It can be a quarter, month, six months, a year or several years. In fact, the company can take any, as long as it can be aligned with other indicators that you have on the timeline. Basically takes a time period equal to one year.
Output the number of sales occurring during the calculation period. Next, you need to calculate all the revenue that was obtained during the study period. To do this, fold the monetary value of all products sold during the reporting period.
Calculate the sum of all costs committed during the reporting period that you chose. Count the amount of all obligations and costs incurred by your company during the period under review for all types of goods that were sold. Summarize the values from sales.
Divide the value obtained by the number which is obtained by summing costs. At the same time, the higher will the result of this calculation, the more profitable your company, the better directed use of the assets available. After the increase in the amount of turnover increases profits.
Use the classic system calculations for more detailed calculations. To do this, subtract the estimated annual (monthly or quarterly) turnover the amount of funds required for the procurement of goods for this period. In turn, don't forget to include in the list of regular expenses like paying staff salaries, costs of transportation, rent of premises, insurance, communications (telephone, Fax, Internet), depreciation and repair of existing equipment, legal advice, taxes. The resulting total value in the result produced by the basic deductions and is the income.

Advice 2: How to calculate revenue

Advice 3: How to calculate payback

To think that the ability to calculate the return should have only economists and businessmen, is fundamentally wrong. Each family is investing money in apartments, houses, cars and Bank deposits. All it is capable of after some time, grow in value and benefit to their owners. Therefore, to talk about return on investment and can be with friends, with colleagues, and neighbors on the landing. And it is not surprising if they don't know the phrase "return on investment", because not everyone can be economists and businessmen.
How to calculate payback
You will need
  • calculator
  • - handle
  • - a sheet of paper
For home use the payback calculation is extremely simple and unpretentious. To calculate the payback, you need the value of the invested funds divided by the amount of profits. The obtained value will show the period of time during which there will be payback.
For example, we bought an apartment on the first floor of a residential building over 3 000 000 RUB 600 000 we spent for repair and bureaucratic procedures and the arrangement of the adjacent territory. Then, by submitting the Declaration, handed over the premises to the lessee, who is to pay the monthly utilities and the amount of 40 000 rubles.
Thus, our investments amounted to 3, 600, 000. And the monthly profit of the project is 40 000 rubles. For the full payback of the investment will be required to surrender our space for rent for (3 600 000 / 40 000 90 months, or 7.5 years.
Another example. Each invites us to engage in cargo transportation. They will need the car GAZelle, which have to be purchased. Suppose that the value of the monthly profits from the cargo after all expenses for repairs and fuel are expected to be about 40 000 RUB. let's Say we buy a used GAZelle for 300 000 rubles.
Thus, the ROI will come through the (300 000 / 40 000 a) 7.5 months.
In addition, the ROI can be compared, choosing more lucrative opportunities. Compare the income from the GAZelle from the previous example, with income on Bank deposits at a rate of 10.5% per annum.
For ease of comparison, take the amount of the Deposit equal to the cost of the GAZelle, 300, 000. Assume that, under the terms of the Bank, interest is paid at maturity. Thus, after 1 year, the amount of our investment will grow to (300 000 * 10,5%) 31 500 rubles. And we will have 331 500 rubles.
For 12 months of work in freight, we will receive (40 000 x 12) 480 000 RUB. From a mathematical point of view, this means that in our examples it is more profitable to invest in transportation, and not to the Bank.
I hope that now you will make financial decisions with greater rationality.

Advice 4: How to calculate nutritional value

Food quality includes many properties that characterize their nutritional and biological value and organoleptic, functional-technological, sanitary-hygienic characteristics. Foods provide energy and promote normal metabolism.
How to calculate nutritional value
You will need
  • table energy value of foods.
Modern ideas about the qualitative and quantitative needs of human food are reflected in the concept of a balanced diet. According to her for the normal activities of the person needs a certain amount of energy and nutrients: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, mineral salts, vitamins and trace elements. Many of these substances is indispensable, i.e. not produced in the body, although essential to man.
For the characteristics of the food product determine its overall elemental composition, select the degree of conformity of each component to the formula of balanced nutrition and find the so-called integral emergency. It is expressed in energy units (3000 kcal) and reflects the ability of a product to meet the needs of the organism in the necessary substances.
Define for yourself the concept of "nutritional value", it includes the proportion of nutrients in the product, the total energy value and organoleptic characteristics of the product. Energy value characterizes the part of energy released from food in the process of biological oxidation in the body. Depending on gender, age, weight and occupation a person needs to consume daily 600 to 5,000 kcal per day. Guide the self-examination of their lifestyle and, on this basis, calculate how many calories you need per day. Each food has a different energy value. For example, in 100 grams of meat contains from 100 to 350 kcal.
Proteins in the body are digested by 84,5%, carbohydrates 95,6%, fats – 94%. Given the level of assimilation of nutrients, calculate the energy value of the product. The oxidation of 1 g of protein stands out of 4.00 kcal (16.7 Kj) of energy, fat - 9,00 kcal (37,7 Kj.), of carbohydrates 3,75 kcal (15.7 Kj).
The nutritional value of the products calculate the ratio of the total chemical composition of the product and its weight. In addition to nutritional value in energy terms, an important indicator of food is its biological value. It characterizes the quality of the protein component product as the ratio of the degree of equilibrium of its amino acid composition and level of digestibility and assimilation of proteins in the body.

Advice 5: How to calculate the index of physical volume

Indexes are of great importance in economic theory, they function as indicators and indexes of dynamics of various processes. In particular, the index of physical volume shows how many times the increased or decreased volume of trade turnover in the same period of time compared with baseline.
How to calculate the index of physical volume
Turnover or volume of sales is one of the main indicators of production circulation. This is not only a quantitative indicator, but quality for any enterprise, because it captures the essence of the economic activity profit dynamics. This allows you to make decisions about changing policy of the enterprise to improve end products, reduce the cost of production, and hence, reduce costs.
For the analysis of the turnover index of the physical volume. Actually it shows the ratio of the amount of goods sold in the reporting period, the number of goods sold in the reference period. However, a simple division of one by another will not exactly reflect the dynamics of sales of goods, as this disparate values because of the diversity of the products.
To obtain the numerator and denominator of two quantities that can be compared, it is necessary to use as the so-called price weights of the base period. The weight index is a value that always remains constant in contrast to the indexed variable – the number of units of products.
So, the formula of the index of physical volume can be written in the following form:It = Σ(q_1*p_0)/Σ(q_0*p_0), where q_0 is the quantity of goods sold in the base period;q_1 – the quantity of goods sold for the period;p_0 – the base price of the product.
In other words, the index of physical volume of sales is calculated on the basis of the produced products. For example, the company produces TVs and dvd players, then the index is equal to:It = (q_тв_1*р_тв_0)/( q_тв_0*р_тв_0) + (q_dvd_1*p_dvd_0)/ (q_dvd_0*p_dvd_0).
Thus, the index of physical volume shows how many times did the cost of production due to increase or decrease the volume of its production. This value is measured in percent. Sometimes it is necessary to calculate the absolute value of this index, which is not expressed in the ratio and difference of numerator and denominator.

Advice 6: How to calculate the maternity allowance in 2015

For those who are planning to go on maternity leave in 2015, of particular relevance is the problem of calculating the potential of maternity benefits. This allows expectant mothers to correctly plan your budget for the birth of a child.
How to calculate the maternity allowance in 2015


The procedure of calculation of maternity benefits in 2015

It will remain the same, i.e. less beneficial for expectant mothers than it was in 2013. Of deducted the amount of maternity leave maternity, child care, periods of exemption from work, extra weekends to care for a disabled child.

In 2015, for the calculation of maternity will be considered income for the preceding two years – for 2013 and 2014. Revenues in 2015 will not be counted, even if the woman will go on maternity leave in December. It is not beneficial to those women who have increases in income during 2015.

For the calculation of maternity benefits will need the following initial data:

- average daily earnings in the last two years;

- the duration of leave for pregnancy and childbirth. It can be 140 days in General, 156 days if complicated childbirth or 194 days in multiple pregnancies.

To calculate the average daily wage has to add up the salary for two years, with premiums, vacation and travel. Please note that payments are considered to be without personal income tax. This does not include paid sick leave or benefits.

Of 730 days is deducted the period in which the woman was on sick leave, on leave for child care, vacation and maternity leave.

For example, in 2013, the income of women constituted:

· salary - 150000 p.;

· holiday – 15000 p.;

· quarterly bonuses – 40000 p.;

· hospital - 6000 R. (28 days).

In 2014, the income of women constituted:

· salary - 200000 p;

· holiday – 20000 R.;

· quarterly bonuses – 60000 p.;

· hospital - 4000 p (25 days).

The average daily earnings amount to: (150000+15000+40000+200000+20000+60000)/(365+365-25-28) = 485000/677=716,4 R. it Remains only to multiply the said amount by the number of days of maternity leave. So, in General, the size of maternity will be 100 296 p. (716,4*140).

If independent calculations of maternity seem complicated, you can use one of the online calculators that are based on the data entered, will allow to perform the calculations. One of his examples is presented here

The minimum amount of maternity in 2015

In 2015 he is 27 455,34 R. in normal childbirth, 30 593,10 R. - in complicated and 38 045,26 R. in the case of multiple pregnancy (194 days). Considered on the basis of the minimum wage in 2015 for a year – R. 5965 (5965/730*24*140).

If you have a smaller amount of maternity, below this amount, you still do not get it.

The maximum amount of maternity benefits in 2015

Maternity allowance can not be higher than the statutory level. The fact that the employer makes contributions to the social insurance Fund with the whole of the employee's salary and only income, a lower limit level.

In 2015, takes account of the maximum levels in 2013 and 2014. Their size were, respectively, 568 and 624 thousand rubles Respectively, if your total annual income was above, you should still expect Fiat to limit earnings.

On the basis of these values it turns out that the maximum amount of maternity in 2015 will be 228602,73 R.((568000+624000)/730*140). Accordingly, when birth complications arise, the figure is 254 728,77 R., in multiple pregnancies - 316 778,08 R.

What other payoffs at birth?

This lump-sum benefit at birth of a child in a fixed amount (in 2015 it will increase to 14497,80 R.), and the allowance at registration in early terms of pregnancy, its size for 2015 – 543,67 R.). In addition, the woman may be eligible for additional regional and Federal payments, if available (e.g., Maternal capital).

Maternity allowance for unemployed

Maternity payments are not entitled. But they can get a lump-sum payment for early registration of antenatal clinics, and the allowance for pregnancy and childbirth in a fixed amount.

The only category of unemployed citizens, which can still count on some payments, it is women who were dismissed within 12 months in connection with liquidation of the organisation or termination of activity as an individual entrepreneur (advocate, notary). However, the amount of maternity for such mothers more than modest. In 2015 it is 543,67 p. per month. For the calculation of maternity in this case, you must 543,67*140 days of maternity leave (or 156/194)/30 days. It turns out that total payments will amount to 2537,13 R.

How to calculate the maternity allowance to individual entrepreneurs

Individual entrepreneurs can receive maternity allowance only, provided that they are registered to the social insurance Fund on a voluntary basis and paid insurance premiums for 2014.

SP with any yield can rely solely on minimum benefits. Of course, it is unlikely that such an approach can be considered fair. For example, FIU SP must share 1% of income more than 300 thousand it is often the total amount of taxes paid into the funds year exceeds obtained maternity. Also the salaries of the entrepreneur and the deductions from it are not made on the basis of the minimum wage, and on the basis of regional minimum, which at times exceeds it. Most entrepreneur have to settle for 27 thousand.

How to get maternity allowance

It is necessary to apply to their employer with the relevant statement and provide a medical certificate obtained at week 30 in the antenatal clinic. Allowance must appoint within 10days and pay on the day nearest paycheck.

Entrepreneurs who are voluntarily insured in the FSS, it is necessary to write the application addressed to the Fund.

Is the advice useful?