When syphilis affects all of the liquid environment of the body. Therefore, contamination may occur not only during intercourse but also during oral sex and even kissing, especially if the skin has cracks. In most case, the signs of syphilis (chancre) appear at the place of penetration of Treponema pallidum – the causative agent of the disease.
Unlike other sexually transmitted diseases for syphilis characterized by long incubation period. That is why the first signs may not arouse suspicion and remain without proper treatment. Meanwhile, there is a further development of the disease.
Often the first symptoms of syphilis appear after 40 days of infection. In the place of the infection appears solid seal – chancre – ulcer with sharp edges and flat edges, thick base and a bluish-red color. It can occur on the external genitals or on the cervix (in women). And the only symptom of syphilis in this period can only be swollen lymph nodes. That is why the initial stage of the disease can pass unnoticed.
The appearance of the chancre is accompanied by malaise, fever, headaches, muscle and bone-articular pains (mainly at night), as well as insomnia and anemia. If these signs of illness are given a completely different meaning, and leave them without proper attention, the syphilis succeed in another article, which is characterized by episodic appearance of the rash.
For the second stage of syphilis characterized by a long duration (up to 4 years or more). The disease manifests periodic discomfort, severe hair loss (up to the bald spots) and a rash on the skin, mucous membranes, and sometimes on the plantar part of the feet and palms. Moreover, lesions in syphilis vary according to the form and manifested in the form of spots, pustules, confluent plaques. The characteristic feature of this stage is the "necklace of Venus" - a white spot on the neck type of collar. His appearance tells about the defeat of the nervous system.
If untreated, the disease goes into a latent form without any symptoms for years. And, despite the lack of visible signs of syphilisthere is a gradual bone-articular, muscular and nervous systems, and 5 years later syphilis enters into the last stage.
In the third stage syphilis affects all the organs and tissues. Especially the nervous system suffers. And, despite the fact that in this period the disease is curable, the affected organs irreversible changes occur, leading to disability or deformity. And what is the breakdown of cartilage, a clear symptom of the last stage of syphilis is the lack of nose is its cartilaginous part.
Suspicious symptoms – swollen lymph nodes, a rash or sores it is better to undergo laboratory tests. It will help to exclude or confirm syphilis. The most common method of diagnosing syphilis is a blood test on PB (Wasserman) in which blood taken from the cubital vein. Not less common and serological analysis of blood.
If the result is positive, for confirmation of syphilis, make the reaction of immobilization pale treponemes. In rare cases with clear evidence of syphilis, but a negative analysis can assign computed tomography.
Advice 2 : How to identify syphilis
Because of the long incubation period of the infection syphilisom can be a complete surprise to the patient. And because of the specifics initial, sometimes just noticeable, symptoms of the disease are able to move quickly to the second stage and, one after another remission relapse, leaking years.
Infection with syphilis occurs both sexually and by contact-household. For Treponema pallidum, causing syphilis, the slightest break in the skin to enter the body and the bloodstream to spread it to all organs. When syphilis is the infection of all body fluids – blood, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, lymph, seminal fluid, the secret of the lacrimal glands, amniotic fluid (during pregnancy).
The incubation period of syphilis lasts up to 40 days. And during this time the development of the disease occurs without any signs of infection. The beginning of the first stage of syphilis is evidenced by the formed in place of the introduction Treponema pallidum is painless and firm to the touch sore, the so – called chancre. He has a clear outline with gently sloping edges, smooth bluish-red bottom and seal at the base.
Most often, the chancre appears on external genitals (women may appear on the cervix) and is accompanied by an increase closely located lymph nodes (usually inguinal). In addition to the chancre in the same period there is a General malaise, fever, headaches, bone pain, especially at night, insomnia, anemia. Soon, the chancre takes place, and the disease quietly progresses to the second stage of development that begins with a rash.
The second stage of syphilis lasts 3-4 years, sometimes longer. It is manifested by malaise and frequent, long-lasting rash on the skin. The rash appears in the form of spots, nodules and pustules, form confluent plaques affecting not only the skin but also the mucous membranes. Sometimes rashes strike the entire surface of the body, including the soles and palms. Often the rash appears in the form of garlands or around the neck in the form of white spots, forming the "lace collar" necklace of Venus, which is a symptom of lesions of the nervous system. At this stage the hair falls out, there is baldness.
The symptoms of the second stage of syphilis can disappear for months and years, giving the impression of self-healing. And in fact, syphilis goes into a latent (latent) phase. And for several years this sexually transmitted disease can appear and disappear. At this time it gradually destroys bone and tissue, affects the nervous system. Infected with syphilis at this stage is particularly dangerous.
The third stage of syphilis starts mainly in the 5 th year from the beginning of infection. It is characterized by a pronounced defeat of all organs and systems of the body, especially the nervous system. In this stage of syphilis is also treatable, as in the first two, however, the restoration of the affected organs is becoming impossible and syphilis often ends with disability or deformity, if there is a lesion of the facial tissues.