Advice 1: When you reach the age of majority in different countries

Age of majority is the age at which a person fully acquires all the rights and responsibilities of marriage, dispose of their income and property to answer for their actions before the law, vote in elections and referendums. All this is included in the legal concept of capacity.

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The day of adulthood in Japan
The age when a person is recognized by adults varied from epoch to epoch, and were not always the same for men and women. For example, in medieval Europe, the age of marriage for men has come in 14 years, and for women is 12. Currently, the age of majority varies from state to state.

Russia



In the Russian Empire did not have a single clue of age, but was of the right status and for entry into each right was determined by its age. With 15 years Russian citizen could testify in court, with 16 – to enter the service, with 17 to dispose of property and enter into contracts with the participation of its Trustee (doing it yourself was only 21 years). In 18 years the young man received the right to marry, for girls, the marriage age was advancing several earlier – at the age of 16. 21 years old could participate in the Assembly of nobles, and with 25 years in city elections and to hold various positions in the municipality or rural administration.

In modern Russia the age of majority is 18 years. From 14 to 18 years the person is in the status of minors, which is different from the position of a minor under 14 years of age. Minor citizen has a passport, partly criminally liable. An underage girl in the case of pregnancy may marry with the permission of local authorities.

Other countries



There is an international Declaration, according to which people under 18 years of age, ceases to be a child. In many countries, as in the Russian Federation, the age corresponds to the age: Germany, Austria, Italy, Spain, Hungary, Denmark, Switzerland, Sweden, Romania, Slovakia, Lithuania, Estonia, South Africa, Venezuela and other countries.

Cuba, Egypt, Honduras and Bahrain, the age of majority is 16, in the Faroe Islands 14, North Korea – 17, in South Korea, 19 years old, Tunisia and Japan – 20. It is noteworthy that in Japan the second Monday of January, make a feast for all boys and girls who this year will celebrate or have already celebrated its 20th anniversary.

There are States where different parts of the country sets different age of majority – for example, UK: in England the age of majority is 18 years old and in Scotland 16. In most US States the age of majority is 18, but in Alabama, Wyoming and Nebraska is 19, in Mississippi and new York state is 21.

In Brazil and Malaysia, the age of majority is not the same as getting voting rights. In both these States the citizens become adults at 18, but in the election, Brazilians vote with 16, and the citizens of Malaysia from 21 years.

Advice 2: What age of criminal responsibility

Juvenile delinquency and its growth are partly a consequence of the low legal culture of the younger generation. Many of the minor who committed the offense, were sincerely convinced that the prosecution doesn't threaten them. You should explain to the children that for their actions they may respond criminally as adults and what they perceive as an adventure or prank is, sometimes, a serious crime, responsibility for which starts from the age of 16.
What age of criminal responsibility

The age of criminal responsibility


This age stipulates article 20 of the Criminal code of the Russian Federation. In General cases, criminal liability is incurred by a citizen, who at the time of the crime was 16 years old. According to the Decree №7 of the Plenum of VS Russian Federation from 14.02.2000, the citizen can be considered reached age from which he can answer by law, by the end of the day after the day of birth, i.e. at 00:00 hours of the next day.

But there are crimes, the severity of which is so large that responsible for them have been since I was 14. Such crimes include:
- a murder committed under article 105;
- the deliberate infliction of injury or infliction of serious or medium gravity harm to health under article 111 and 112;
- kidnapping under article 126;
sexual violence under article 131 and 132;
- participation in the theft, robbery, robbery or extortion, article 158, 161, 162 and 163;
- theft of the vehicle without intent to steal it, article 166;
- deliberate destruction of another's property with aggravating circumstances (part 2, article 167;
- commit a terrorist act or capture someone hostage, articles 205 and 206;
- false message about the impending terrorist act, article 207;
- malicious act of hooliganism or vandalism, article 213, part 2, and 214;
- theft or extortion of weapons or drugs, articles 226 and 229;
- the destruction or breakdown of vehicles or means of communication.

The law stipulates the cases of offences to answer for that person only if he has reached the age of 18. Such crimes include:
- sexual intercourse with a person of the opposite or same sex offender who is under 16 years, article 134;
- evasion from compulsory military service or alternative military service without legal grounds, parts 1 and 2 of article 328;
- crimes committed during military service.

Who is exempted from criminal liability


A differentiated approach to the listed crimes lies in the fact that in 14 years, people are already able to adequately assess the severity of the crime and its consequences. But of course, this can be expected from someone who has a level of mental development corresponding to his age. If a teenager is behind in mental development to adequately assess what is happening he is unable, therefore, according to part 3, article 20 of the criminal code, may be exempted from criminal responsibility. "Age of insanity" must be confirmed by a medical examination.
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