Advice 1: What to do if you have faulty wiring in the apartment

From circuit in the wiring, not insured by any one housing. Troubleshooting can be quite fast if you know the household wiring and be able to quickly find the damaged areas.
Definition of faulty lines in distribution box
The presence of circuit breakers on individual lines allows you to quickly find a short tripped the fuse. If the apartment is not provided selective protection, which will require additional time to explore the boxes, and joints. Before starting work you should turn off both the circuit breaker that feeds the apartment.

The opening junction boxes

Scheme raskrucheny the wiring in the apartment may be different, however all of the cables converge at one or more junction boxes. They are located at the level of 10-30 cm from a ceiling and can often be seen protruding caps. If the boxes were bricked up in the wall, you can find them tapping on the surface with the handle of a screwdriver. Where the sound of the kick becomes muffled, most likely, there is a cavity in the wall in which the box is mounted.

You first need to find the connection of the lines feeding the outlet. Typically, the two strands with the greatest number of wires thicker section. Single connection characteristic of the phase wires of the line lighting and reverse switch wires. The outlet lines need to be separated and raise the ends to the sides. The cable feeding the box, usually moving away from her towards the front door. Paired the ends of the wires you need to check for a short, pre-disconnect from the outlet appliances. In the same way, you should check the line of lights and switches, beforehand Razumkov circuit and unscrewing the bulb from its socket.

If the circuit has not been found, we need to establish the exact correspondence between the wires in the box and consumers to which they were attached. For this purpose, the probes are attached to the contact sockets or lighting cartridge and alternately close the wires in the box before the appearance of the signal chain. If a short circuit lived, the cable may burn out completely, so it will not respond to the circuit. Also the problem can be hidden in the wire feeding the box.

The elimination of short circuit

When the problem line is found, you must first open the socket or lighting socket and make a visual inspection of the ground contact joints for signs of soot, reflow or wire break. If the problem is not fixed, need to check the cable from the outlet to the presence of a contact between two conductors. Happens to a lot of damage to the wire buried in the wall. In this case, will require the installation of a new cable.

For supply voltages on healthy lines, disconnect the shorted area in the junction box. This is followed by the Assembly of the twisting or terminal connections and check for a short circuit without connecting consumers to the network. If the line is working, it is possible to apply the voltage to the apartment.

Advice 2 : How to find the broken wire

Broken wiring is able to deliver a lot of problems, but a bigger problem is usually finding a fault (except for cases when, usually in an open wiring, the injury is clearly visible). Find the hidden damage during the laying of electricitytransactions is much more complicated. Here in most cases without special equipment (the locator) and professionals-electricians can not do, but you can try something!
screwdriver indicator
You will need
  • To find a fault you will need: a screwdriver-indicator; tester; contactless indicator of concealed wiring, at least the easiest – they are often inserted in the screwdriver lights (however, a layman can obtain from this indicator acceptable result only in the case when the wall is absent of any metal, apart from the wires). Plus the "convenience" tool – screwdriver, pliers, a knife, with insulated handle, electrical tape...
First of all, you must determine which of the conductors of the interrupted – phase or "zero". For this indicator with a screwdriver "my fish" contacts broken outlet or switch. In the socket under tension should be one of the contacts in the switch are in the off position) or all (in the "on" position). If "phase" there is, then, interrupted "zero". When the wiring is hidden the only way – to turn to professionals, to independently localize the seat of the open will fail.
When laying exposed (i.e., when the wire is available in the area from the junction box to a broken point) the injury is tester. This disconnects the voltage in the apartment switchboard, and then on the wire near its exit from the junction box is the first "cut" - cut insulation allowing the bare metal of the conductor; approximately meter incision another notch (second). Measure the resistance between the cuts – if it has a small value, the gap there is no gap. Then about a meter away from the second notch is third, measure the resistance between the second and third notches, etc.
No resistance will indicate that between the probe device has the injury. On the identified area of the wires re-made notches closer to each other through a meter, for example. Localizing the next, smaller the length of the damaged area, it again repeat the above described procedure. This method the fracture of wires is determined with a precision of millimeters, but it's usually too open is visually much earlier. After the malfunction is isolated carefully to all exposed areas of the wire.
The difference of the phase conductor in brick or concrete (no steel reinforcement) the wall is use a non-contact indicator hidden wiring. The wires from the junction boxes are usually laid vertically or horizontally, the turns are made at right angles, so the "route" from the box to the outlet you can determine quite accurately. Along it, on the wall surface, moves the indicator about the damage it will signal one way or the other, depending on the design of the device. This is usually the tone in the cliff, he disappears.
We should not forget that while self - "study of electrical circuits there is a risk of electric shock.
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