Advice 1: What tests to take for diarrhea

Prolonged diarrhea should cause serious concern, because it may be a symptom of many diseases. In addition, diarrhea itself is dangerous for the body because it leads to severe dehydration, disruption of intestinal flora, promotes a decrease in the receipt of useful minerals in the blood.
The tests for diarrhea
Instruction
1
To determine the cause of the diarrhea pass the necessary tests. Start with the analysis of a feces on a dysbacteriosis. It can be used to estimate the ratio of the useful, opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms. Decrease the concentration of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, Escherichia coli, increased proliferation of enterobacteria, staphylococci, clostridia, fungi, Proteus and other microbes leads to the disruption of the balance and, consequently, diarrhea.
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It will also be helpful to take specialized analysis for intestinal infections. The cause may be dysentery, rotavirus infection, salmonellosis, yersiniosis.
3
The following two analyses will identify the presence of parasites in the body, they are especially important for children, pet owners and lovers of river fish. Hand over a feces on eggs a worm and Giardia, as well as blood for antibodies to worms — Toxocara, Trichinella, tapeworm, opisthorchiasis. Worms can cause diarrhea and vomiting if they are in the body a lot, they cause toxicity and inflammation of intestines.
4
In some diseases, e.g., hepatitis, acute appendicitis, nervous tension and stress accelerates peristalsis of the intestine and may cause diarrhea. To exclude these diseases, your feces for hepatitis A, take a blood test for hepatitis b and C. Constant symptom of appendicitis is acute pain in the lower abdomen or in the right side, with her appearance should immediately call the doctors.
5
Chronic diarrhea, where feces are buttery in texture, with undigested pieces of food, poorly washed from the walls of the toilet, talking about dysfunction and pancreatic insufficiency of digestion. Make sure you coprology, which will allow the detection of undigested muscle fibers, elastase and diagnosis of pancreatitis.
6
Help to find the cause of diarrhea is also common and biochemical blood test for liver enzymes and pancreas. Yellow diarrhea, nausea, vomiting — symptoms of the second stage of hepatic insufficiency, it is important to learn about the disease and begin treatment.
7
Get an ultrasound of the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen. Different abnormalities and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract often lead to disturbances in the intestines.
8
If using the above listed tests failed to make the correct diagnosis, try to check the thyroid gland — increased hormones (hyperthyroidism) in some cases, can also cause prolonged diarrhea. Another possible cause is neuro-psychiatric disorders in which there is irritable bowel syndrome.

Advice 2: How to get tested for worms

It is an unpleasant disease – infection (invasion) parasites. Often it is particularly concerned about children who are dragged into the mouth of the dirty objects and dirty fingers. To get rid of this scourge, there are effective medicines and strict hygiene. However, first you need to accurately diagnose parasitic infestation is to hand over the analysis on worms (helminths).
How to get tested for worms
You will need
  • Clean container with lid
  • Q-tip
  • Glue, paper and pen for labels
  • Water
  • Sticky tape and bits of glass
  • The direction of the blood
Instruction
1
Turn on analysis of the feces for the detection of worms in it these parasites lay eggs. To obtain reliable data it is recommended to buy in a drugstore a special one-time capacity-a container with an airtight lid and spoon made of plastic. You can also use small clean jar (e.g. baby food), screw down tightly. Stick to the capacity of paper (purchased container it already is) and indicate on it the name and the time of analysisand for worms.
2
Do scraping on enterobiasis (pinworm infection). Such analysis is easy to do for small children at home. Remove the swab and the specialist directly in the laboratory, however, a child this process usually causes the resistance. Early in the morning, moisten a clean cotton swab with water and wipe with baby perianal folds. Immediately after this place the smear in a clean container.
3
You can also stick to the anus a piece of adhesive tape of cellophane, quickly remove it and place between two sterile glass slides (set of panes and films will give you in the clinic). It is recommended to conduct such test 2-3 times at intervals of 3-5 days.
4
Give blood for determination of helminthes. Sometimes detect parasites previous methods fail, the doctor may advise additional research on blood concentrations of immunoglobulins - molecules which struggle with toxins and pathogens. The result of the analysis ofa blood will allow the doctor to determinewhat type of worms parasite in your body. After this, you will prescribe the appropriate treatment.
Note
You will have to be tested for worms, if you will not abide by strict hygiene rules. Thoroughly wash children's toys and furniture; wash and iron on two sides underwear; change it every day; short cut nails – they become the center of parasite eggs.
Useful advice
Every 10-30 days after treatment of parasitic infestation repeat twice tests for worms; then (a few months) monitor the possible re-infection of worms.

Advice 3: How to pass the analysis on a dysbacteriosis

To detect the presence of dysbiosis in the body is only possible after passing the relevant tests. They will help your doctor to establish the correct diagnosis and to appoint correct treatment.
The first indicator of dysbiosis can be frequent abdominal pain.
You will need
  • - sterile container;
  • - fresh material.
Instruction
1
Under dysbiosis specialists understand the serious disorders of the intestinal microflora, which can provoke the appearance of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. There are several ways to determine this imbalance in the body: coprological, biochemical, and microbiological. All three methods involve the delivery of stool to the laboratory to conduct the necessary research. To pass, you will need to collect material into a container, which must be sterile, and then take it to the clinic by place of residence, where research can do for free. In private clinics this analysis is, on average, 400-500 rubles. Material must be received in the laboratory within three hours after collection, then only the results of the study will fully reflect the situation.
2
It is not recommended to take this type of analysis in that case, if the patient is taking antibiotic medications and medications with live microorganisms. As another contraindications to testing should consider the SARS disease that requires antibiotics. In that case, if the tests must pass child, remember that during the month after the birth of his gut flora is fragile and the result may not be accurate. Sometimes, studies conducted at different times of the day one day can differ significantly from each other, it is therefore necessary to wait until the baby turns at least a month.
3
The results of such analyses, it is possible to obtain after a couple of days after delivery. Usually they are sent to the area clinic, which is fixed to the patient or left at the reception. In that case, if the analysis were put into a private clinic, you should contact the registry. Most of the study on a dysbacteriosis conducted after the recent patient infectious diseases. The reason for the test is likely to be long the use of hormones and antibiotic, which was not controlled by the attending physician, as well as the passage of patient of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. After receiving the results of the analysis, the therapist will be able to determine why the violation occurred intestinal flora, and then prescribe treatment.

Advice 4: How to test for Giardia

Giardiasis – a protozoan disease of the digestive system, caused by Giardia. The disease may be asymptomatic or with minor violations on the part of the gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis of giardiasis is confirmed by laboratory tests for the presence of this pathogen. Proper preparation for this analysis, collection of material, its transportation – the key to obtaining a credible result of the study.
How to test for Giardia
You will need
  • - container for biological material;
  • - spatula;
  • Bank;
  • detergent;
  • - toiletries;
  • - solution furatsilina;
  • - running water;
  • - preservative Safaralieva;
  • - preservative Turdieva
Instruction
1
For the diagnosis of giardiasis conduct laboratory research. Material for the study are feces and venous blood.
2
When conducting parasitological fecal detect Giardia cysts and their eggs. It is necessary to properly prepare for the delivery of the biomaterial to correctly hold his collection to obtain reliable results.
3
Purchase at the pharmacy a special sterile container for biological material. Do not open the packaging until the time of delivery of the analysis, as this may lead to a breach of the sterile conditions and the distortion of research results.
4
Urinate before collecting the stool. Do a thorough washing the genital area and anus with warm water with detergent. You can use a ready solution furatsilina from the pharmacy.
5
Dry the genital area and anus before passing stool to prevent the destruction of Giardia cysts elements of detergent and water.
6
Take the spatula from the container for biological material and collect the feces. You should not fill the tank a large amount of material.
7
Label the container of biological material, specifying the name, surname and date of collection of feces.
8
Deliver biological material in the form of heat in the laboratory within 20 minutes, but not later than 2 hours.
9
Blood is detection of antibodies to antigens of Giardia. For the determination of antibodies used venous blood.
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10 hours before the procedure of taking blood from a vein must stop eating. Before the procedure you should exclude tea, coffee, juices, alcohol. In the morning it is possible to take a glass of water. The analysis seems to on an empty stomach.
Note
If it is not possible to deliver stool to the laboratory immediately, you can take in the laboratory Safaralieva preservative or preservative Turdieva.

The first negative result of the study in cases of suspected giardiasis is carried out 3-4 times a stool with an interval of 3-4 days.

Antibodies to antigens of Giardia persist in the blood for up to six months.

Decoding blood test for Giardia may not accurately indicate the presence of the pathogen.
Useful advice
If it is not possible to purchase sterile container for biological material in the pharmacy, you can use a jar of baby puree. Thoroughly wash the jar with soap and rinse under running water. Dry the jar.

In the presence of constipation is necessary the day before the test to take a laxative ("Senate", "Guttalax", saline laxatives). The feces should be obtained by spontaneous defecation.

It is necessary to take a sample of biological material from different places in the stool.

Advice 5: What tests show pancreatitis

Pancreatitis is a group of diseases and syndromes that cause inflammation of the pancreas. Development of pancreatitis is due to the influence of factors contributing to the increase in pressure in pancreatic ducts, reflux of duodenal contents into pancreatic ducts, damaging functional elements of the pancreas. Important for diagnosing pancreatitis are laboratory studies of biological fluids of the body.
What tests show pancreatitis
You will need
  • - toiletries;
  • dry - clean Bank.
Instruction
1
Laboratory tests that can diagnose pancreatitis include: General clinical analysis of blood, biochemical analysis of blood, biochemical analysis of urine.
2
Clinical blood shall be in the morning on an empty stomach. A slight increase of leukocyte count, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate indicate the presence in the body of the inflammatory process.
3
Biochemical analysis of blood seems in the morning on an empty stomach from Vienna. In the venous blood is carried out the quantitative determination of alpha-amylase, lipase, C-reactive protein.
4
Alpha-amylase – an enzyme that breaks down starch and other carbohydrates, provides the digestion of carbohydrate foods. The normal value for alpha-amylase in the blood: 10-100 U/l.
5
The increase in the number of alpha-amylase in the study of blood may indicate acute pancreatitis or exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis.
6
After 2-12 hours from the onset of acute pancreatitis the amylase activity starts to increase and reaches a maximum at the end of the day with the subsequent decrease of activity and normalization during the week.
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Lipase is an enzyme that promotes the breakdown of fats entering the body with food. For an adult is considered normal lipase content of up to 190 U/ml.
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After 4-8 hours from the onset of acute pancreatitis, the lipase level in blood serum increases to 200 times, reaching a peak at 24 hours and decreases in 8-14 days.
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Simultaneous determination of lipase and amylase to diagnose pancreatic lesion with an accuracy of more than 90%.
10
C-reactive protein (CRP) – protein of acute phase of the inflammatory process. Normally, the content of CRP in the blood is less than 5 mg/L.
11
Increasing the amount of CRP in the blood occurs after 48 hours from the onset of acute pancreatitis. The study of blood C-reactive protein is important for determining prognosis of acute pancreatitis.
12
Biochemical analysis of urine in the diagnosis of pancreatitis is a quantification of diastase.
13
The normal value of the content of diastase in the urine is in the range of 16-64 Units. A significant increase in the content of diastase in urine is noted in pancreatitis.
Note
1 hour before taking blood can't smoke for prevention of obtaining reliable analyses. If necessary, the differential diagnosis of urine for diastase may be taken at any time of the day. Required newly issued urine.
Useful advice
The day before the blood from the vein, refrain from taking fatty foods, alcoholic beverages. The blood in the morning on an empty stomach, eliminating the intake of coffee, tea, juices. It is permissible to drink a glass of water. Urine biochemical test pass in the morning, after showering.

Advice 6: What tests to pass on Giardia

Giardiasis – the disease caused by Giardia. In the upper intestine live vegetative forms that once in the colon, turn into a cyst or spore form and again with the faeces released into the environment.
What tests to pass on Giardia
You will need
  • - the direction of the analysis.
Instruction
1
The patient with giardiasis in day highlights of a stool more than 900 million cysts. The infection is fecal-oral, contact-domestic and food by. Sources of infestation can become toys, poorly washed dishes, fruits, vegetables, drinking water and contact with Pets. Reproduction of Giardia occur in the intestinal lumen. Parasites attach themselves firmly to the walls of the small intestine and hinder the absorption of minerals and vitamins.
2
Diagnosis of giardiasis in many clinics is made by serologic and microscopic methods. Under the microscope examine the residual content of feces and duodenal contents. The difficulty and uncertainty of such a diagnosis are obvious. Sometimes the technician is unable to make a clear differentiation of cysts.
3
Therefore, the analysis of different portions of feces and duodenal contents taken from 6-7 persons, it is recommended to explore repeatedly for 4-5 weeks with small breaks. Choleretic and anti lamblic products contribute to a more rapid diagnosis, because cysts lose their ability to hold on to the walls of the intestine and are detected in the content prepared for laboratory diagnosis.
4
The most promising method of diagnosis of giardiasis is an immunofluorescence assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or ELISA. Antigens are diagnosed not only in patients ' serum of patients and carriers. The accuracy of such diagnosis is 98,9%. The test system allows detection of total immunoglobulin antibodies GSA-65, IgG, A, M. In particular, high levels of IgG antigen provides a basis for the diagnosis of chronic giardiasis. A high level of IgM allows the diagnosis of "acute giardiasis".
5
However, in the early stages of infection results in the determination of antigens can be negative. Preettty period, when the number of cysts and antigens less-defined norms, can last from two to four weeks. Therefore, early screening should be associated with a clinical picture of parasitic diseases and compared with data from the collected history.
6
After successful treatment of a patient newly prescribed a thorough examination. If the antigens in the serum or cysts in the stool and duodenal contents was not revealed for several repeated surveys, a person is considered completely healthy and free from giardiasis.

Advice 7: What tests to take to check out the pancreas

Currently, most diseases are diagnosed using laboratory indicators. The doctor, looking exactly the results of the analysis can judge the state of the internal organs. The pancreas in this case is no exception. To have an idea about the quality of its work, the expert needs to assess a number of indicators.
What needs to be tested
The pancreas is a very important organ of the digestive system, which produces the enzyme amylase. It is under the action of this substance is the breakdown of complex carbohydrates to oligosaccharides. In congestive and inflammatory processes fails in the work of the pancreas and the production of amylase is broken. Therefore, doctors prescribe tests, where you can see the change in this indicator.


Blood tests


If you suspect pancreatitis, gastroenterologist prescribes a series of studies to confirm your diagnosis and to appoint correct treatment. Mandatory to be the General clinical analysis of blood. Spend it on an empty stomach, in the morning, the results are known within a few hours. In inflammatory diseases of the pancreas in the overall analysis, you can see the increase in white blood cells and ESR. However, this indirect indicators, based on which the diagnosis is impossible.

More informative is the biochemical analysis of blood, which is determined by the activity of the enzyme amylase. If it increases, it indicates a malfunction of the pancreas. It is often possible to observe a tenfold increase of this indicator from the norm. Here it is possible to detect the increase in glucose and decrease cholesterol.

Also in the blood to determine the antigen of the pancreas. Positive test in this case indicates the presence of an acute process. However, in chronic pancreatitis, this antigen is absent.

Other tests that are prescribed to check the pancreas


Don't forget that amylase in diseases of the pancreas, and increases urine. But in the saliva it is below normal in the chronic stage and higher in the acute period of the disease.

To obtain a complete picture of the disease, the doctor recommends to pass a stool where you can discover the remains of undigested food. Due to disturbances in the metabolism of the feces becomes light gray.

Do not forget about the research of pancreatic juice, which is obtained by sensing. This very unpleasant procedure, but the doctor can get a pretty informative picture of the authority.

To fully appreciate the work of the pancreas and a final diagnosis, the doctor connects ultrasonic and radiographic. The patient only have to remember one thing, all the tests that have appointed specialist, it is best to pass in the shortest possible time.

Advice 8: How to recognize AIDS

What to do if you suspect that you have AIDS? Your health, of course, should be treated gently, and alarmed at the slightest indisposition, but to obey the panic is not worth it. Consider the main cases when you should seriously think about their condition and pass the required tests for HIV and AIDS.
How to recognize AIDS
Instruction
1
First, you need to understand and remember the difference between HIV and AIDS. HIV is the human immunodeficiency virus, which may be present in your blood, but for a long time not to be felt (up to 5-7 years!) If you have a strong suspicion (say, have you had unprotected sexual contact) about the possibility of HIV infection, simply submit to a blood test. Leak disease in the early stages may be completely asymptomatic, but to learn about her needs as early as possible. First, in order to protect others from potential infection, and secondly in time to pick up a special immunotherapy. Unfortunately, not everyone knows that with proper treatment and early diagnosis of HIV the patient can lead a completely normal life like any other healthy person.
2
However, the blood test you need to pass immediately after potential contamination, and after about 3-6 months. Of course, proper and sufficient for the recognition of the amount of virus can accumulate within a short time, all depends on the case and the individual characteristics of the organism. In some people the virus may already become obvious and after a month, so the best test for HIV three times: the first 1-2 months after potential infection, the second 3, and the last six months. If the latter analysis gives a negative result, live peacefully and continue to be much more careful!
3
AIDS also is a set of symptoms and all purchased on the background of HIV disease. The person who has passed the stage of AIDS, are subject to rapid development and severe course of even the most common cold, or poisoning. Here are some symptoms that you should pay attention first: do you have a persistent fever, unexplained weakness or fever, diarrhea, abdominal pain, rash, persistent irritation - all of these symptoms can be symptoms of AIDS. Poor healing of even the most innocuous wound - also an alarming sign, as in immunodeficiency the body virtually loses the ability to recovery.
4
Of course, you should not panic. All of the above symptoms can be treated, in fact, to any other illness, but to get tested for your own moral peace is clearly worth it! Very often people for fear of Contracting HIV or AIDS earn the whole breakdown, panicking because each jump temperature or slightly enlarged lymph nodes. First of all you should calm down, get tested and to know about potential disease as much as possible. Be healthy!
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