The occurrence of rubella caused by a virus from the group of togaviridae. It is transmitted by direct contact with an infected person by airborne droplets. In addition, it is possible and transplacental transmission of the virus. In this case, the infected child is still in the womb through the transition of virus to the fetus through the placenta.
The disease agent feels comfortable only in the human body. In the environment it rapidly dies. This is facilitated by the ultraviolet rays, the pressure drops, high temperature, low humidity. But at low temperatures the virus lives long enough, while maintaining the ability to reproduce for several years.
The rubella virus is especially dangerous because the incubation period of the disease varies from 2 to 3 weeks. This means that the sick person begins to spread the infection long before the appearance of its first symptoms. In addition, in some cases rubella can occur without symptoms. The result of this is contamination of the environment of the patient. To the hospital it comes only when someone have a rash on the body.
Especially high risk of disease to non-vaccinated and without a history of rubella people. Occurring an annual seasonal exacerbation for the population is not terrible, because in this period are effective preventive measures. The same epidemic outbreaks occur approximately every 10 years. After people have been ill with a rubella, he has develop a strong lifelong immunity to the disease, although according to some, in rare cases, the risk of re-infection remains.
For the diagnosis of rubella can use several methods. First, it explains the nature of the rash, time of its appearance and other details. They then resort to virological and serological methods, Phragmites (reaction of indirect hemagglutination), PH (neutralization reaction), RSK (complement fixation), ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay).
Specific treatment for rubella exists. Is used bed rest for about a week, good nutrition that is tailored to the patient's age, etiotropic therapy with Immunostimulants, immunomodulators and virucidal. Also with rubella it is recommended to drink plenty of liquids (detoxification therapy). Apply symptomatic treatment with mucolytics, antipyretics and analgesics.