For a man thunderstorms are one of the most dangerous natural phenomena. In the number of fatalities from people, storms are second only to floods. In the Earth's atmosphere thunderstorms are fairly common. Approximately 46 of lightning occurs over the surface of our planet every second. It is worth noting that over the continents, thunderstorms occur ten times more frequently than over the oceans.
Nearly eighty percent of all what is happening on Earth, thunderstorms are concentrated in the tropics and subtropics. The intensity of the storms is directly related to solar activity. A major percentage of storm formations recorded in the afternoon hours of summer months.
The zippers are a result of the creation of cumulonimbus clouds. For the formation of such clouds requires the implementation of a number of conditions. Usually this is due to the presence of the powerful updrafts. That is why lightning is a frequent phenomenon in mountainous areas.
At the present time to classify storms according to the meteorological environment in which they occur. The size of the cumulonimbus clouds depends on the size and intensity of the upstream humidity.
The least powerful thunderstorms klassificeret as a single-cell. They occur in light winds and do not possess sufficient intensity. The most common type of thunderstorms is mnogoyazychie cluster formation. This type is much more powerful than a single-cell, but not the most intense.
Least likely to be found supereconomy thunderstorms. This type represents a serious threat to communal buildings and human life. Storm cloud of this type can reach fifty kilometers wide and fifteen tall. On the occurrence and course of the storm consumes huge amount of energy. It is roughly equivalent to a nuclear explosion of 20 kilotons. Naturally, all of the energy is released much more slowly on a huge area, so hardly noticeable.
Advice 2 : Why thunder
Storm clouds, vivid lightning flashes in the sky are always accompanied by such amazing natural phenomenon in the atmosphere, like thunder. Someone he's scared, but someone indefinitely can enjoy the echoes of thunderpeals oriented and spectacle of the struggle of the elements. How are these thunderthe cue peals, often repeated more than once.
Thunder is the sound lightning that permeates the air. When the first lightning arrow tends to land, it carries an electrical charge. Meet her from the ground pulled the spark charge. Connection to the cloud begins to rise the current, gaining strength up to 20,000 amps. And the temperature of the channel through which it is current, can be above 250000 C. such a high temperature the molecules of air scatter, and he is expanding with supersonic speed and forms a shock wave. A deafening roar caused by these waves, called thunderohms. Due to the fact that the speed of light is much higher than the speed of sound, lightning is seen at once, and thunder is heard much later.Peals of thunderand occur due to the fact that the sound comes from different parts of lightning, having a considerable length. In addition, the discharge itself does not occur in an instant, but lasts a certain time. The sound produced may be affected by echoes from surrounding objects: mountains, buildings and clouds. So people hear not one sound, and some catching up with each other echoes, the thunder ofthe bone which can exceed 100 decibels.To roughly calculate at what distance the lightning struck, it should be noted the number of seconds that pass between a flash and a strike of thunder. And then divide the resulting figure by three. Comparing these calculations, it is also possible to make a conclusion about whether the approaching storm, or Vice versa, is deleted. Usually a thundertype thunder can be heard at a distance of 15 to 20 kilometers from the lightning flash.
Advice 3 : Why when storm heard the sound of thunder
Thunderstorm — a vivid and fascinating atmospheric phenomenon. In temperate latitudes they occur about 10-15 times during the year, in the vicinity of the equator on land, from 80 to 160 days a year are the storm. Over the oceans they occur much less frequently. Thunderstorms are the companions of atmospheric fronts that leads to the displacement of warm air masses cold.
The storm begins with a huge column of air that forms quickly swelling tall white cloud. Storm clouds — real giants, their size can reach 10 km, and the lower part is flat, but it rings sharply up and to the sides.
When the upper limit of such a cloud-giant reaches the stratosphere, it begins to collapse and takes the form of a kind of anvil. Sudden Gale-force wind, sometimes turning into a flurry. Storm squalls can cause serious damage. There were times when they overturned train cars weighing more than 16 tons. The most terrible thunderstorms with squalls usually occur in the warm season.
Lightning is a powerful electrical discharge in air that occurs between two storm clouds or between a cloud and the ground. The strength of this charge is huge, so the air around the lightning instantly heats up to very high temperatures and is expanding dramatically. As a result of this extension, there is a strong sound wave, called thunder.
Multiple and powerful lightning strikes can form a long roar and noise. This is because the sound wave is reflected from the clouds, ground, buildings and other items, creating a multiple echo and extending the thunder.
A lightning flash propagates in air at the speed of light, so it is visible almost immediately after discharge, and the roar of expanding air masses flying one kilometer on average in 3 seconds. If lightning and thunder followed each other continuously, we can say that a thunderstorm occurs near. If lightning flashes far ahead of the thunder, then the storm is at a certain distance from the observer. Accordingly, the next thunderstorm, the longer you will not hear the thunder after the lightning.
Advice 4 : How dangerous thunder
Of the meteorological phenomena of the storm are perhaps the most mysterious. Many of the internal processes of a conventional storm incomprehensible even to scientists, not to mention the ordinary people. It is logical that sometimes the most powerful thunder give people an irrational fear, to overcome which is the easiest understanding of what thunder is.
A bright flash, signifying the beginning of a serious downpour, referred to as the "lightning." In the clouds during the rain builds up a massive electrical charge, and it is logical that he is looking for something to do. Because on top of "catch" not at all, can only hit into the ground (or something metallic – lightning, for example). Released while the charge is huge: the voltage reaches 50 million volts!
It is logical that discharge greatly affects everything around him, in particular – on the air in the immediate vicinity. Tremendous energy in a fraction of a second heats the surrounding area to 30 thousand degrees Celsius, which here was born the sound wave, called thunder.
Light travels many times faster than sound, so if at the point of impact all at the same time, already at the distance of a few kilometers there is a tangible delay. This is the first reason why the thunder threat: it is only later when you hear it, you can be sure that the main impact has passed.
But if the lightning flashes only once, why the noise lasts a few seconds in a row? Imagine yourself in the woods. If you shout loud enough, the sound will be reflected from surrounding objects (trees, leaves, earth) and return to you in the form of an echo. The sound of thunder a few louder you scream, but the principle remains the same: Bouncing off the earth's surface, clouds, Isaias in the air, he comes to some points not once, but several "stretched". Remember that echo still, no one was hurt in this sense, the thunder is absolutely not dangerous.
However, not everything is so rosy. It is now clear that the thunder is only a sound, but the sound also can hurt: if it's too loud, of course. Directly around the lightning waves reach 120 decibels, which is the limit of audibility of the average human, roughly the same as the noise of an airplane taking off. If you are not used to the explosion of grenades in the immediate neighborhood and do not have a musical ear, the untrained eardrum can greatly suffer if you are near the lightning flashes.