The measure of blood pressure consists of two numbers — systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Systolic pressure — the higher the value of the two quantities — shows the blood pressure at the time of the heart. The diastolic pressure reflects the pressure in blood vessels when the heart is in the so-called relaxed state.
Blood pressure data is important for the production of such dangerous diagnoses as hypertensive crisis, cardiogenic (as, indeed, any other) shock, dangerous loss volume of total blood volume. For children blood pressure numbers is important primarily for the early detection of true abnormalities of the heart such as congenital heart disease and secondary lesions. The latter refers to the weakness of the sinus node, cardiomyopathy, myocardial dystrophy, neoplastic and endocrine diseases.
Children are born with systolic blood pressure 95-60 mm of mercury (mm Hg. art.) and diastolic 50-40 mm Hg. article Usually boys, these figures are closer to the upper limit of normal. During the first year of life blood pressure numbers are growing pretty quickly. It is quite physiological as during the first twelve months the child is growing rapidly, rapidly gaining in weight, his cardio-vascular system is actively developing. But despite the increase in the AP values have a one year old to normal adult numbers is still far. This is due to the fact that in children the blood vessels are very elastic, richly developed capillary network in the vascular wall has not yet clogged with cholesterol deposits and have good resistance.
There is a formula to calculate normal blood pressure for children. In under one year of age systolic pressure is calculated by the formula: 76 + 2 x number of months. The boundaries of the normal diastolic pressure ranges from 2/3 to 1/2 of the systolic. For example, for a child 5 months of normal blood pressure is calculated as follows: SAD = 76 + 2x5 = 86 mm Hg. article; DBP from 43 to 57 mm Hg. article
At the age of one year works, another formula for calculating blood pressure: the GARDEN = 90 + 2 x number of years; DBP = 60 + number of years. That is, for a child of five normal pressures is: SAD = 90 +2x5 = 100 mm Hg. article; DBP = 60 + 5 = 65 mm Hg. article
In adolescence, 12-15 years, indicators of arterial pressure at children reach numbers that are the norm for an adult person: GARDEN 135-110 mm Hg. article; DBP 85-70 mm Hg. the article Under normal condition these figures are kept within such limits for many years. Moreover, they vary very slightly even when worries and stress. It speaks to the health of the heart and blood vessels.